Russula are tasty, healthy mushrooms that can be found throughout Russia. But, unfortunately, mushroom pickers often come across false doubles that can lead to food poisoning. Eating russula is a poisonous species that can be confused with edible specimens. In order not to harm the body, you need to know the description of the species, view the photo, study the first signs of poisoning and how to properly provide emergency assistance.
Where acute russules grow
Eating russula, or sardonyx, grow in coniferous and mixed forests. Growth peaks in late August and early September. Sardonyx mushroom prefers acidic, moist or peaty soil. Sharp-eating russula prefers to grow in families in open, sunny places.
What spicy russula look like
So that there are no false doubles in the basket, you need to know what sharp-eating russules look like, where and how they grow. Sharp russules are a lamellar species. They are small and similar in appearance to the edible species.
Important! A sardonyx or spicy mushroom is never wormy.
To know the differences between edible and poisonous russula, you need to view the photo.
Description of russula sardonyx
The cap of the russula is 3-10 cm in diameter. In young russules it is convex, and with age it becomes thickened and flat with a pronounced darkened depression in the center. Red, purple or lilac skin is not completely removed during cleaning. There is also a sardonyx variety with a lilac, purple or greenish-black tint.
The plates of the sharp-edged russula are frequent, narrow, accrete with the stem. In young mushrooms, they are painted in a pure cream color, and with age, the color changes to bright yellow.
The pulp of the cylindrical or fusiform stem is white, dense, with a weak apple aroma and a pungent bitter taste. In an adult sardonyx variety, the leg becomes flabby, empty and fibrous. The outer scales are often light red, purple, or purple in color. The leg length is from 2 to 6 cm, the thickness is 10-18 mm.
Spore powder of dirty cream color. The spores themselves have no color, but they have an amyloid warty ornament and look like small ellipses measuring 7x6 microns.
Is it possible to eat russula sardonyx
Spicy russula belongs to the 4th group of edibility, but many mushroom pickers believe that it is unsuitable for cooking.
Because of its strong bitterness and pungent-pungent taste, russula is not used for frying, stewing and pickling, but after prolonged soaking and boiling, the spicy variety can be used for pickling. But, as experienced mushroom pickers advise, it is better not to collect this variety, since with the wrong cooking technology, it can cause food poisoning, especially in children, pregnant women, in people with renal or hepatic insufficiency and with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Important! Because of the poison and toxins, the sharp-edged variety is not used in folk medicine.
How to distinguish spicy russula
The sardonyx variety can be confused with the edible species. But in order not to be mistaken in the choice, you need to know the differences:
- late appearance;
- dense pulp, which changes color when heated;
- bright yellow plates in old specimens;
- pungent bitter taste;
- bright color of the cap;
- poor peeling of the skin from the cap;
- weak apple smell;
- red reaction to ammonia.
Important! If there are doubts during collection, whether it is an edible mushroom or a false one, then you can bite off a small piece or lightly lick the pulp at the fracture site. If a pungently pungent taste appears, then one might think that this is a spicy russula.
Symptoms of poisoning with acute russules
The spicy russula is an inedible species. Therefore, if he accidentally fell into the basket, and then on the table, then you need to know the first symptoms of intoxication in order to flush the stomach and intestines in a timely manner.
The first signs appear in about 2-4 hours. But there are cases that intoxication begins in half an hour, after 5-7 hours or in a day. It all depends on certain factors:
- the volume of meals eaten;
- the rate of assimilation of food;
- what dish was eaten: fried, stewed, salted or pickled;
- the victim's age and body weight.
Important! If alcohol was present before or during the use of acute russula, then the toxic effect of toxic substances on the body increases sharply.
Fungal poison does not appear immediately, intoxication can begin after a few hours or days. Doctors distinguish 3 stages of food poisoning:
- The defeat of the gastrointestinal tract. The duration of this stage depends on the amount of eaten spicy mushrooms.
- Temporary improvement. All previous symptoms are absent.
- Failure to provide assistance may result in damage to internal organs, central nervous system and blood circulation.
At the first stage, the victim has nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. In the future, sharp pains begin in the epigastric region, a weakening of the pulse, weakness, sweating, a lack of appetite and a decrease in blood pressure.
Important! When the first signs appear, an urgent need to call a medical team.
First aid for poisoning with acute russula
When signs of intoxication appear, they immediately begin treatment. Timely assistance is the key to a speedy recovery.
Important! If children are poisoned with acute russules, then you need to immediately consult a doctor so that there are no dire consequences.
Spicy russula does not contain dangerous poisons and toxins in the pulp, therefore, after consumption, only mild food malaise can occur. At the initial stage of intoxication, it is necessary to wash the intestines and stomach.
To stop the absorption of toxins into the bloodstream, the victim is given sorbents, such as activated charcoal (1 tablet per 10 kg of body weight). The intestines are cleansed with laxatives or enemas. It is better to give preference to medications, since folk remedies can be ineffective and begin to work after a few hours.
If it is difficult to induce vomiting, then give a saline solution or potassium permanganate to drink, diluted with warm water to a pale pink color. You also need to increase your fluid intake, up to 4-5 liters per day.
Important! If there is no improvement, you need to call an ambulance.
During intoxication, it is strictly forbidden to take antiemetic and fixing drugs. Since with the help of vomiting and diarrhea, the body fights poisons and toxins.
Spicy russula does not cause serious harm to the body, food intoxication passes quickly and without consequences.
During mushroom hunting, it must be remembered that a forest product can cause irreparable harm to the body. Therefore, only familiar species need to be collected. If you have doubts, it is better to pass by in order to protect yourself and your loved ones.
Eating russula is a poisonous mushroom, when consumed, mild food poisoning can occur. In order not to make a mistake when collecting and not to collect a whole basket of false russula, you need to know the distinctive features.