The reddish talker is a poisonous mushroom, which is often confused with edible representatives of the same genus, or with honey agarics. Some mushroom pickers believe that the whitish and reddish govorushka are different mushrooms, but these are only synonyms. Reddish has several names: whitish, furrowed, bleached, discolored. The reddish talker belongs to the department Basidiomycota, the family Tricholomataceae, the genus Govorushka or Clitocybe. There are more than 250 edible and poisonous representatives in the genus. In Russia, about 60 species are known that are difficult to distinguish for novice mushroom pickers.
Where reddish talkers grow
Whitish talker (clitocybe dealbata) is distributed all over the world, grows in deciduous, coniferous and mixed forests of Europe, North America, European Russia, Crimea, Western and Eastern Siberia, Primorye, China. It is found in grass in forest glades, in city parks, in industrial zones, in clearings and forest edges. Forms an alliance with the roots of trees, supplying them with minerals.
It grows actively from mid-July to November, creating groups in the form of even circles, which are called "witches". But this has nothing to do with magic, a poisonous whitish talker sprays spores in a circle. Loves an abundance of moss and fallen leaves, moist soil and sunny places.
What whitish talkers look like
At first, scientists divided the whitish talker into 2 separate types:
- with a pinkish cap, plates of an identical color and a short stem;
- with a gray cap and an elongated leg.
However, after several tests and observations of the reddish, the scientists concluded that the color changes with the moisture and the degree of wetness of the mushroom. Both types were combined into one.
The whitish talker is short. A thin cylindrical leg grows up to 2-4 cm. In small mushrooms, it is dense and elastic, with age it becomes hollow and narrows to 0.8 cm in diameter. Darkens when pressed.
The cap of a reddish talker is of medium or small size, up to 4 cm in diameter; in young specimens, the top is convex, with the edges bent to the leg; with age, it is more extended and depressed in the center. The edges of the cap in an adult furrowed talker are of an irregular shape, the color is snow-white, sometimes pinkish-brown in the center, less often buffy. Powdery bloom, gray spots and cracks appear on the surface of the cap with age. When cut, the light flesh does not change color.
In young talkers, the plates are pinkish; as they grow, they become white. In rainy weather, the hat is sticky and slippery, in dry and hot weather it is velvety.
The fleshy cap smells good of leaves, freshly sawn wood, or flour, but the smell, like the pronounced mushroom flavor, is deceiving. It is advisable to familiarize yourself with the photo and description of the whitish talker in advance, so as not to confuse it with anything.
Important! The reddish talker contains a high concentration of muscarine, which is much more than in the red fly agaric. For a lethal outcome, up to 1 g of this poison is enough.
Is it possible to eat reddish talkers
After muscarine enters the human body, poisoning occurs after 15-20 minutes, but sometimes symptoms appear after several hours or even days. The poison of the whitish talker is resistant to heat treatment. Contrary to the opinion of some mushroom pickers, with prolonged cooking, muscarine is not destroyed. Eating reddish mushrooms is life threatening.
How to distinguish whitish talkers
It has been noticed that a furrowed talker in the dark can emit a faint emerald glow, but this sign will not help mushroom pickers to identify her during the day.
The danger of whitish in its similarity to edible mushrooms:
- meadow honey with a beige or light brown cap, rare plates and almond aroma;
There are also poisonous counterparts:
If there is any doubt about the edibility of the found mushroom, you do not need to take it to the basket.
A person who has poisoned with reddish talkers develops one after another characteristic symptoms:
- increased salivation and sweating;
- severe cramps in the stomach and intestines;
- redness of the face;
- violation of the rhythm of the heartbeat;
- significant constriction of the pupils, blurred eyes;
- lowering blood pressure;
- bronchospasm and other breathing disorders;
Whitish talkers do not act with their poisonous composition on the central nervous system, however, they can cause severe disturbances in the work of the peripheral. As a result of a sharp contraction of the uterus and bladder, involuntary urination is possible, and pregnant women are at risk of miscarriage or premature birth.
Sharing with alcohol will aggravate the situation, which can be fatal.
Fatalities with the use of the reddish talker are rare. Due to untimely seeking help from doctors, a person may die from dehydration, sudden cardiac arrest, kidney failure, bronchospasm. It is especially dangerous to eat them for people suffering from asthma and heart disease.
In the hospital, in case of mushroom poisoning with muscarin, an antidote is given - "Atropine" or other M-anticholinergics.
Important! Usually, with light poisoning with a whitish govorushka, the symptoms weaken after 2-3 hours and are not so pronounced. But it is impossible to independently determine the severity of the poisoning, therefore it is necessary to immediately call an ambulance at the first symptoms.
First aid for poisoning
Before the arrival of doctors, the victim needs to be given first aid:
- provide an abundant drink (at least 2 liters of water);
- rinse and induce vomiting in the victim. The procedure is carried out until all the liquid leaving the stomach reaches transparency;
- give activated carbon or another sorbing agent (Sorboxan, Enterosgel, Filtrum STI);
- to stimulate the work of the heart, give the poisoned "Validol" or "Corvalol".
If there are no contraindications to taking "Atropine", you can block the poison with this drug. Neutralizes the action of muscarine with only 0.1 g of the blocker. But doctors do not recommend giving any medications, especially antispasmodics and pain relievers, so that specialists can correctly diagnose.
The reddish (whitish) talker causes poisoning every year. Edible specimens are confused with inedible and poisonous. It is better to refuse to collect unfamiliar mushrooms and not to taste them.