Mushrooms, so tasty and desirable, can be found not only in the forest, but also in your garden bed, basement, shed or greenhouse. At home, you can grow oyster mushrooms, winter mushrooms, outlandish shiitake and, of course, champignons. It is champignons that are most in demand for mushroom growers, since this species gives the maximum yield in a minimum period of time. They are picky about care, do not require special, "difficult" conditions of detention. Mushrooms must be grown in accordance with the rules of a particular technology. One of them allows the cultivation of mushrooms in bags. We will try to talk in detail about all the features and nuances of this method of cultivating champignons.
Champignons in bags: pros and cons
Champignons are absolutely not picky. They can grow in an open bed or in any large container, but experienced mushroom growers prefer to use plastic bags - blocks as a planting place. Such a solution, at first glance, may seem strange, but it is fully justified by the following advantages:
- Plastic bags do not allow diseases and pests to spread to the entire planting area.
- If necessary, at any time a particular package can be closed or taken out of the room.
- The mobility of the bags allows you to grow mushrooms seasonally in open areas of the garden and in specially equipped rooms.
- It is convenient to arrange the bags in several rows on multi-tiered stands.
- Plastic bags are much cheaper than plastic containers.
Of course, the proposed technology is not ideal, since only manual labor is used to fill the bags with soil, care for the crop and to collect the grown mushrooms. However, on a small scale, this is usually not a big problem.
Secrets and basics of technology
The cultivation of champignons must be approached with knowledge of the matter, since even the slightest mistake or defect can ruin the planting, and all the work invested will go to waste. That is why we decided to describe in detail the entire process of mushroom cultivation from the moment of soil preparation to harvesting.
The best substrate for "home" champignons
For the successful growth of mushrooms, it is necessary to fill the bags with exclusively nutritious soil, which consists of 75% horse manure and 25% compost. In this case, a special compost filler should be used: rye or wheat straw. Additionally, it is necessary to increase the nutritional value of the soil with mineral fertilizers.
Depending on the scale of cultivation, you should stock up on the listed components and start preparing the substrate:
- Soak the straw in a barrel of water.
- Place damp straw and manure on the compost in rows. There should be at least 6 layers in the compost for better decomposition.
- When laying in the compost, the straw is additionally moistened with water and sprinkled with urea, superphosphate.
- After thoroughly mixing all the ingredients, add chalk and gypsum to the compost.
- Put the compost in a heap and let it smolder for 3 weeks. After this time, the substrate will be ready for use.
When preparing a nutrient substrate for mushrooms, it is very important to correctly calculate the amount of mineral supplements. So, for every 100 kg of compost mixture, it is necessary to additionally add 2 kg of superphosphate and urea, as well as 5 kg of chalk and 8 kg of gypsum. A good substrate for mushrooms can be tested by pressing: when it is squeezed, the thickness of the soil springs.
Unfortunately, horse manure can be difficult to find. In this case, it can be replaced with chicken droppings. This fertilizer is taken in equal proportions with straw and supplemented with gypsum and alabaster.
Important! The use of chicken manure or cattle manure, pigs does not give such a high yield as when using horse manure.
Mushrooms are grown in bags in small quantities in their subsidiary farm for personal use and on an industrial scale for sale. The method has proven itself well in many countries and for its implementation it is necessary, first of all, to stock up on bags that will play the role of a seat.
Important! You can grow mushrooms at home using ordinary sugar bags with a capacity of 50 kg.
Bags can be made from plastic film on your own, taking into account the following recommendations:
- The bag capacity should be 25-40 kg. It is convenient to work with such blocks. They fit compactly even into small spaces.
- The bag diameter can vary from 30 to 40 cm.
- The thickness of the substrate in the bag should be approximately 20-30 cm.
- Do not place bags too close, as this can contribute to the spread of viral diseases and pests. The most rational is to place the bags in a checkerboard pattern.
Bags of the appropriate size can be found commercially or made by yourself by sewing together a transparent plastic film. An example of making plastic bags for champignons can be seen in the video:
Important! When the bags are staggered, air circulation is best carried out and, as a result, the substrate is cooled, which does not allow it to smolder.
Champignons are propagated by mycelium, which is recommended to be purchased in special laboratories for the cultivation of this culture. The purchase of mycelium from the mycelium producer will guarantee the quality and health of the planting material.
For cultivation in private farmsteads, manufacturers offer two types of mushroom mycelium at once: compost and grain.
Grain mycelium is sold in small bags, which are recommended to be stored at a temperature of 0- + 50C for six months. The consumption of grain mycelium during contamination of the substrate will be 400 g per 100 kg (1 m2 soil).
Compost mycelium is less productive than its grain counterpart. It is sold in glass jars and consumed at the rate of 500 g (1 m2 soil). You can store such mycelium throughout the year at a temperature of 00C. In room conditions, the compost mycelium is not stored for more than 3 weeks.
Growing champignons at home should be carried out in a previously disinfected substrate. The best sterilization method in this case is heating. You can heat the soil over an open fire. When the heated soil cools down to 250C, it can be used for mycelium infection.
Soil contamination with mycelium
You can infect the soil with mycelium in two different ways:
- Take a handful of mycelium and seal it to a depth of 5 cm. Place such tabs at a distance of 20 cm from each other over the entire area of the soil.
- Sprinkle the mycelium with a layer of 1 cm and cover it with a nutritious substrate, 3-5 cm thick.
For the successful growth and spread of the mycelium, certain conditions must be maintained:
- indoor humidity should be 90%;
- the nutrient soil in the bags should always be slightly damp;
- the temperature of the substrate in the bags should be at the level of + 22- + 270FROM;
- so that the soil evaporates moisture to a minimum, cover the bags with mushrooms with paper sheets. You can water the culture through them.
In favorable conditions, the mycelium begins to form the body of the champignon in a couple of weeks. At this time, you need to sprinkle a ground cover layer over the nutrient substrate, consisting of 8/9 parts peat and 1/9 part sand. The thickness of the ground cover should be 3 cm.After applying the soil, it should be kept for 3 days, and then the temperature in the room should be reduced to + 15- + 170FROM.
Important! It is recommended to water the soil in bags with mushrooms by spraying from a spray bottle.
Further care for mushrooms consists in regular watering of the culture, maintaining the required air temperature and ventilating the room. It is important to remember that the presence of drafts can be detrimental to the culture.
The most enjoyable moment for any mushroom grower is the harvesting process. It occurs in about 120 days from the day when the soil was infected with mycelium. Already at this time in the bags it will be possible to observe a large number of young mushrooms, which can be carefully twisted and used for food. It is worth noting that it is better to eat those mushrooms with light plates on the inner side of the cap. Old, overripe mushrooms accumulate substances that can in some cases cause poisoning.
Important! The champignons do not need to be cut, as rot will appear in the place of the cut mushroom.
It is much more efficient to harvest the harvest by carefully twisting the mushrooms. After such a harvest, the mycelium must be sprinkled with a layer of nutrient substrate and moistened with a spray bottle. An example of the correct collection of champignons is shown in the video:
The mushroom mushroom actively bears fruit for 2 weeks. During this time, subject to the necessary conditions, you can collect mushrooms every 2-3 days. This allows you to always use only the freshest ingredients in your food.
Every mushroom grower can confirm that growing mushrooms is extremely profitable. So, for 2 weeks of active fruiting from each 1 m2 soil can be removed up to 20 kg of fresh, fragrant mushrooms. This amount is enough to provide a family with a product. To grow crops, you can take a small area in a barn or cellar. Such beds will not "get in the way" and will be able to delight the harvest all year round if you regularly add mycelium.