Arabis perennial is a well-known ground cover plant widely used by professional landscape designers to decorate gardens, park areas, and recreation areas. Many amateurs also use it. Planting and caring for perennial Arabis is usually straightforward, so it can be grown even by novice gardeners.
Botanical description of Arabis
Arabis (Latin Arabis) is a short, perennial shrub of the Cabbage family (Cruciferous). In the wild, there are about 110 different species of this plant; it can be found quite often in many parts of the world. Related species of arabis, or, as it is also called, rezuhi, are:
Important! Some species of perennial Arabis are endangered and are listed in the Red Book.
Most species of Arabis perennial have white flowers.
The main parameters of the plant are shown in the table:
Perennial or annual shrub
Generative shoots ascending, vegetative - curly or creeping branchy lashes, flexible, strong, form cushion-shaped clumps
Depending on the type, from 0.1 to 0.5 m
Small, smooth, leathery, with a smooth edge, oval or arrow-shaped, greenish-gray, with or without tomentose pubescence
Fibrous, powerful, intertwining
Numerous, white, yellow, pink or lilac, collected in scutes or brushes, have a subtle sweetish aroma
Flat, ripens in pods
Important! Perennial Arabis is an excellent honey plant.
Types and varieties of arabis
Certain types of perennial Arabis have long been used in cultural gardening. On their basis, many varieties have been bred, differing in color, flowering time, size. The following are descriptions and photos of some types of rezuha, recommendations for planting and care.
Arabis by Ferdinand Coburg Variegat
Arabis Ferdinandi Coburgii Variegata (Arabis Ferdinandi Coburgii Variegata) is a rather low, not higher than 10 cm, perennial ground cover plant. It grows quickly, forming a continuous carpet. Stems are thin, long, easily rooted. Leaves are oval-elongated, variegated, shiny, with a green center and a lighter border, sometimes lilac, purple or pink shades. Peduncles appear in May-June, their height is 10-15 cm.
Arabis perennial Ferdinand Coburg Variegat does not lose its decorative effect after flowering
The flowers are white in color, they are numerous, small, about 0.5 cm in diameter, collected in loose brushes. The main purpose is to decorate Japanese-style gardens, rockeries and alpine slides, since Ferdinand's Arabis of the Coburg Variegat goes well with large stones and other profile plants.
The perennial flower Arabis ciliate, or ciliate (Arabis blepharophylla), a photo and description of which are presented below, forms a low-growing volumetric bush-curtain no more than 0.1 m in height and about 0.25 m in diameter.The shoots are dense, green. The leaves are bright, greenish-gray, with dense pubescence.
Arabis perennial ciliated blooms profusely, in May-June
The petals are painted in crimson, lilac or purple tones. Inflorescences are loose, racemose.
Important! Arabis ciliate is the most demanding type of perennial dehydration to care for.
Arabis perennial ciliate-leaved Rose Delight grows up to 0.3 m. Creeping stems, easily rooting. The flowers are lilac-pink. Perennial is used as an element in the design of alpine slides and rockeries.
Arabis Rose Delight is often used to strengthen slopes
Spring Charm is one of the varieties of ciliated arabis. The bushes are small, 10-15 cm tall. The color of the flowers is lilac-pinkish. Can be grown in ordinary flower beds, as well as in rock gardens.
Spring Charm flowers are medium-sized, about 1 cm in diameter
Alpine Arabis (Arabis alpina) is considered one of the most popular types of razuh. Forms a densely leafy dense curtain up to 0.35 m high. Creeping shoots, green. The leaves are small, oval-elongated, dense, pubescent, greenish with a silvery tint.
The flowering of perennial alpine arabis begins in the 2nd half of May and lasts about 2 months.
During the budding period, the plant is abundantly covered with small, about 2 cm in diameter, white or pinkish flowers with a yellowish central part, collected in loose voluminous brushes.
Important! In landscape design, this variety is often used as a curb plant.
Arabis Laplandia (Laplandia) - one of the well-known varieties of Alpine resupply. The perennial grows rapidly, forming a continuous carpet. Flowers about 1 cm, white.
Rezuha Laplandia is an excellent ground cover variety
Alpine Arabis variety Snow carpet has a white color of flowers. Perennial plant, used as a ground cover. The height of the bushes is 30-35 cm. Flowering time is from May to the end of June.
Rezuha Snow carpet grows rapidly over a large area
Rezuha Terry is one of the perennial varieties of Alpine Arabis. Differs in double flowers of white or mauve color. Inflorescences are medium-sized, corymbose type.
Arabis Terry begins to bloom in mid-May
Perennial Arabis Grandiflora pink (Grandiflora rose), in comparison with other species, has rather large flowers, their diameter is about 2 cm. The height of the bush is 0.3-0.35 m. The color of the petals is mauve.
The flower of Rezuha Grandiflora pink has elongated petals
Perennial Arabis androsacea in appearance resembles a moss cushion about 0.1 m high. Leaves are oval-elongated, strongly elongated, with a sharp tip, collected in whorls. Flowers appear in early summer. The whisk is open, with a small funnel. The petals are white.
Arabis prolomnikovy - one of the most unpretentious species
In the wild, the breakthrough grows on the rocky slopes of the mountains, penetrating with its roots into rocky cracks. In ornamental horticulture, it is used in rockeries and alpine slides.
Arabis procurrens naturally occur in many Balkan countries. It grows rapidly, forming dense clumps. It is used as a perennial ground cover plant and for anchoring slopes.
The height of the Arabis bush running out does not exceed 0.15 m
Shoots are highly branched, green. The flowers are white, medium-sized. The species is characterized by increased frost resistance.
Important! There are varieties of this species with two-colored leaves (variegata).
Perennial Arabis bryoides is found in the mountain ranges of the Balkans in the alpine and subalpine belts. The bush is a rosette of densely leafy stems 0.1-0.15 cm high. The leaves are small, green, elongated ciliate, with strong tomentose pubescence. Inflorescence is a loose shield of small, 0.5-0.7 cm in diameter, white flowers.
Arabis bruid can be found in rocky crevices and crevices
Grows in poor, dry, rocky soil. Used in rock gardens, rockeries.
The undersized Arabis (Arabis pumila) has no decorative value and is hardly artificially cultivated. The plant is undersized, about 5-8 cm, rather inconspicuous. In places of natural growth (Alps and Apennine Mountains), it is often found in large thickets, covering large areas.
Arabis stunted can only be seen in the wild
The stems of this plant are reddish, tough. The leaves are dark green, oval-elongated, strongly pubescent, in the lower part they form a rosette, from which a peduncle up to 15 cm high grows.The flowers appear in mid-spring, they are white, simple, collected in shields 5-8 cm in size.
Caucasian Arabis (Arabis caucasica) in natural conditions can be found not only in the Caucasus, but also in the Crimea, Central Asia, as well as in the mountains of many Mediterranean countries. A perennial plant, it is a fluffy voluminous shrub 0.3-0.35 cm high. It grows on stony soils, preferring open, sunny areas.
Many cultivars have been bred on the basis of Caucasian Arabis
The leaves of the plant are small, heart-shaped, with a smooth or serrated edge, greenish-silvery, pubescent. Flowering begins in May and lasts until the end of June. On the basis of Caucasian arabis, many varieties have been bred with various colors: white, lilac, raspberry, purple, pink. The flowers are simple or double, numerous, with a strong aroma, collected in medium-sized clusters.
Arabis Caucasian Magic carpet is usually sold in stores as a mix. This includes plants with different colors of flowers: white, pink, lilac, lilac. It is used for decorating rock gardens and rocky slopes.
Arabis Magic Carpet is often used as a ground cover crop
The variegated bedspread is a variety of Caucasian arabis with variegated (two-color) leaf color. Due to this, the decorativeness of the plant is preserved even after flowering. This variegated Arabis is used for decorating flower beds, creating accents, decorating alpine slides and rockeries.
White border on the leaves is a distinctive feature of the Variegated veil variety
Little Treasure Deep Rose
Arabis Caucasian Little Treasure Deep Rose is used mainly in flower beds and flower beds. The height of the bushes does not exceed 15 cm. Flowers are small, numerous, bright pink, appear in early summer.
Arabis Little Treasure Deep Rose looks great in rustic landscaping
Arabis Snow cloud begins to bloom in early May. The leaves are serrated, green, due to the strong pubescence they have a silvery tint. Abundant flowering, white petals.
Arabis Snow cloud is distinguished by friendly and long flowering
This is a mix variety from a mixture of Caucasian Arabis seeds of various colors. The bushes are low, up to 0.3 m, with creeping shoots. The color of the flowers is different, from white to lilac.
Arabis Persian rug used as a ground cover
The drooping razuha (Arabis pendula) is widespread in China, Mongolia, and the countries of Central Asia. In Russia, it is found in the European part, as well as in Siberia and the Far East. It is an annual or biennial herb with a rather powerful stem up to 1.2 m high. The leaves are petiolate (in the lower part), sessile above, oval-elongated, with a pointed end.
Razuha drooping is a rare and endangered species.
Brush-shaped inflorescences appear at the ends of the shoots in mid-summer. Sepals pubescent. The petals of small flowers are white, the corolla is simple. Seeds are small, about 2 mm, ripen in long, flat pods in August-September. Rezukha drooping is listed in the Red Book of Vladimir, Ivanovo, Moscow and some other regions of Russia.
Pink Arabis (Arabis rosea) is a perennial growing in a compact bush about 0.25 m high. Climbing stems, creeping. The leaves are elongated, small, oval, due to the strong pubescence they have a silvery tint.
Arabis pink retains a high decorative effect even after flowering.
The petals are pale pink in color. The flowers are large, up to 2 cm in diameter, collected in shields of considerable size. The view is used to decorate a rocky landscape.
Arabis in landscape design
Arabis perennial in nature very often grows in mountainous areas, preferring areas with rocky soil, cracks in the rock, rocky slopes. This fact determined its purpose in landscape design. The plant is great for decorating alpine slides and Japanese gardens, it looks great in rockeries.
Arabis looks great in combination with rock
The ability of rezuha to form dense curtains is used to create original flower “pillows”. Such a composition will look great in a wide flowerpot, in the central part of a flower bed or against a stone wall.
Rounded "pillows" are a great accent in the garden
Perennial Arabis is an excellent ground cover plant. It can be used to create a living carpet as well as hold soil on slopes. Arabis looks especially impressive, filling the space between large stones.
Arabis remarkably smooths out the unevenness of the relief
The low height of arabis allows you to use some of its species in multi-level beds as a background for higher flowers. Some varieties of this perennial plant are used in the design of borders, as well as for the creation of low hedges.
Arabis will perfectly frame the edges of paths or alleys
In nature, Arabis usually reproduces by self-seeding. The seeds of the plant are small and very light, they can be transported by wind and water over considerable distances. For self-breeding of perennial Arabis, you can use any of the following methods:
- Reproduction by seeds.
- By dividing the bush.
Important! If the plant is varietal, then the seeds independently collected from it may not inherit all the characteristics of the parental form. In this case, it is recommended to use any of the vegetative propagation methods.
Growing Arabis from seeds
You can independently purchase perennial Arabis seeds in specialized stores or markets. It is also not difficult to do this via the Internet, on sites for gardeners.
When and how to plant
Arabis seeds purchased for growing can be planted immediately in open ground (before winter). In this case, the planting material is naturally stratified. The seeds are evenly embedded in the soil to a depth of no more than 0.5 cm, or simply spread over the surface of the earth, and then sprinkled with a small layer of peat-sand mixture.
For planting seeds, it is convenient to use special seedling cassettes
In the spring, seeds are pre-germinated in group or individual containers, containers or cups. They are filled with special soil for seedlings or a mixture of sand and peat (1: 1) with the addition of medium-sized pebbles. The soil is pre-moistened, then the seeds are sown evenly, sprinkling them with a thin layer of earth. The containers are covered with foil and placed in a warm, shaded place.
Important! The soil in containers should be regularly ventilated and moistened if dry.
It takes about 3 weeks for the seed to germinate. After the first shoots appear, the film must be completely removed from the containers, and the containers themselves must be transferred to a well-lit place. When the soil dries up, it should be moistened, however, it must be remembered that excess water is destructive for crushes.
Arabis seeds have good germination
After the appearance of a pair of permanent leaves, young seedlings need to be dived into separate pots or cups. Transplanting seedlings into open ground is carried out only after the soil warms up well and passes the likelihood of recurrent frosts.
Important! During the period of growth, the seedlings of arabis need to be periodically hardened, taking them out to fresh air.
Planting perennial arabis in the ground
For long-term rezuha, it is very important to choose the right place and land on time. In this case, the plant will feel good and will delight with abundant flowering.
Autumn planting of seeds in open ground in a permanent place is usually carried out at the end of October. Such a seedless method mimics the natural breeding conditions of Arabis perennial by self-seeding. Seed germination when using this method is low. The grown seedlings are transplanted to an open place in May, when the soil temperature rises to + 8-10 ° C.
Site selection and preparation
Under natural conditions, perennial Arabis grows on rocky, sometimes even rocky ground. It is very important to ensure similar conditions when planting it, the soil should be well-drained and rather poor. To ensure such parameters, a little sand and small stones can be added to the soil. The site should be open and have good sunlight, this will help the cutter not to stretch and keep the natural color of leaves and buds. It is allowed to plant perennial seedlings in light partial shade.
Important! Areas with excessive moisture are contraindicated.
Before planting, the site should be prepared in advance.
The planting site should be dug up by adding chalk, limestone or dolomite flour to the soil, since this plant prefers moderately alkaline soils. It is also necessary to remove debris and weeds so that they do not clog the young seedlings, taking away some of their nutrients.
Seedlings of perennial rezuha are planted with an interval of 0.3 m between adjacent plants. Holes should be dug in advance and spilled with water. The plants are removed from the cup together with the soil on the roots and planted vertically, after which the voids are sprinkled and compacted. The procedure ends with intensive watering of the root zone.
Perennial Arabis is well adapted to adverse conditions, since many of its species grow in the mountains. However, in order to preserve and maintain a decorative look, certain care measures will not be superfluous.
Watering and feeding schedule
Excessive moisture for perennial Arabis is harmful, it does not tolerate stagnation of water in the roots and may die. Therefore, watering is carried out only when necessary, for example, if there has been no precipitation for a long time. If the soil is loose and well-drained, then it should be moistened a little more often.
In most cases, atmospheric moisture is sufficient.
Perennial Arabis does not require rich fertile soils. The plant feels great on rocky ground, it does not need additional feeding. It is enough to add a small amount of humus or compost to the root zone in the spring.
Weeding and loosening
Caring for the root zone stimulates the growth of rhesus, and also increases the decorative effect of the plant as a whole. This is especially important at the initial stage, after planting seedlings. At this time, young perennial plants are very vulnerable, and weeds are able to completely suppress their growth. To prevent this from happening, the root zone must be periodically loosened and cleaned of weeds.
Weeds can oppress seedlings, they need to be removed regularly.
Mulching gives a good effect, it not only improves the air permeability of the soil, but also prevents weeds from developing. To do this, you can use peat, bark of coniferous trees, as well as pebbles, small stones, coarse sand.
Perennial pruning is mainly done for decorative purposes. The bush is maintained in the required dimensions, pruning too long shoots, and also periodically sanitized, removing dry and broken branches.
Important! If you immediately remove the faded shoots, then the total flowering time will increase significantly, the bush will form more and more new flower stalks.
Preparing for winter
Perennial Arabis does not belong to cold-resistant species, its winter hardiness does not exceed - 5-10 ° С. Therefore, in most of the territory of Russia, he needs a mandatory shelter for the winter. At the end of autumn, the bush is cut to a height of 5-8 cm from the ground, then sprinkled with fallen leaves, and later covered with snow. Above single bushes, you can build a shelter made of fabric on a wooden frame in the form of a house.
Pests and diseases
Perennial Arabis is almost not susceptible to disease. Fungal infections such as root rot can result from excess moisture. In this case, you need to take care of arranging good drainage or transplanting the plant to a drier place.
The cruciferous flea feeds on leaves and other plants of the Cabbage family.
Pests also do not favor perennial Arabis with their attention. Occasionally on the plant you can see such insects typical of the Cruciferous family as fleas, bugs, caterpillars. They fight them by spraying with various insecticides.
Important! You cannot use pesticides during the flowering period, otherwise you can kill a large number of bees.
Planting and caring for perennial Arabis does not take much time. Many amateur gardeners do not carry out any activities with this plant at all, especially if it is planted somewhere in the far corner of the garden. Despite this, perennial razuha will still bloom and grow, and if you provide it with at least minimal care, then it will show itself in all its glory.
Reviews about Arabis
Adelina Rusova, 33 years old, Lipetsk
I paid attention to rezuh when I selected perennial plants for my Japanese-style garden. Small rounded "pads" look great among large stones, smoothing out sharp corners and giving the composition a special softness.
Tatiana Aliyeva, 48 years old, Astrakhan
In the heat and dry stony soil, Arabis perennial feels completely normal, its cultivation does not pose a particular problem. The plant is very decorative, rounded low bushes are literally covered with small white flowers-stars.