The use of pet excrement as a means of increasing soil fertility is a well-known and well-established practice. Organics are well absorbed by plants and are an excellent alternative to mineral complexes, however, some of its types should be used as top dressing with extreme caution. One of these fertilizers is pig manure, which can only be used after preliminary preparation.
Is it possible to fertilize the garden with pig manure
Pig manure is a valuable organic fertilizer, but it cannot be used fresh in the garden. Due to the peculiarities of metabolism in the body of pigs, the fresh excrement of these animals contains a huge amount of nitrogen in the form of ammonia compounds. Once in the soil, the fertilizer will simply burn all the roots of the plants. In addition, it has a strong acidic reaction, which also negatively affects the quality of the fertile layer. If the soil already has high acidity, then the introduction of such fertilization will make it completely unsuitable for many types of plants.
Each adult pig produces 8-12 kg of manure daily
In addition, the following negative qualities are inherent in such manure:
- Long decomposition time.
- Low calcium content.
- Weak heat dissipation.
- The presence of weeds, helminth eggs in the composition of seeds.
Despite all the disadvantages, it is still possible to use pig manure as fertilizer. However, before that, certain manipulations must be carried out with him.
The value and composition of pig manure
Due to the different ration of feeding domestic animals, their excrement also has significant differences in the content of substances useful for plants. Here is an approximate composition of trace elements that are found in pig feces:
The table shows that this fertilizer contains a large amount of nitrogen. It should be noted that 80% of its nitrogen compounds can be directly absorbed by plants. In addition, there is a good concentration of phosphorus, but potassium and calcium are much less than in other species.
Why pig manure is useful for soil and plants
Like any other organic fertilizer, pig manure enriches the soil with easily digestible nutrients that plants need for normal growth and development. Nitrogen promotes the growth of shoots and the growth of green mass, potassium and phosphorus are necessary for normal flowering and fruiting, and these elements also strengthen the immunity of garden crops.
Pig feces can be used as organic fertilizer
Pork excrement, especially when mixed with bedding straw, attracts a large number of earthworms, which improve the structure of the soil, loosen it, and contribute to the build-up of a layer of humus.
Pros and cons of using pig manure in the garden
The use of pork excrement as an organic fertilizer can bring many benefits, especially for plants that love nitrogen. Such crops include eggplants, potatoes, peppers, you can apply this organic matter under fast-growing bushes, for example, under blackberries or raspberries. The procedure for grapes gives an excellent result. At the same time, its application has a number of significant disadvantages:
- Due to the high content of urea, the fertilizer has a strong acidic reaction, and this deteriorates the properties of the soil.
- Feces of weed seeds and helminth eggs can infect the area.
- Fresh manure has an extremely unpleasant odor; not everyone can work with it without a respirator.
- Nitrogen in pig feces is contained in the form of slowly decomposing ammonia compounds.
- The use of pig manure significantly increases the acidity of the soil
Important! The acidity and high nitrogen content in such a fertilizer can be leveled to normal values if you wait for it to turn into full-fledged compost.
Types of pig manure
Depending on the period of being outdoors, pig manure is usually divided into several categories:
- Fresh. The period of exposure to air is no more than 3 months.
- Semi-ripe. The age of excrement is from 3 months to six months.
- Overripe. This one is in the open air from 0.5 to 1.5 years.
- Humus. His age is over 1.5 years.
Important! Exposure to harmful factors decreases in direct proportion to the age of the excrement.
As a rule, in its pure form, fresh pig manure in the garden is not used for feeding at all. It is too dangerous due to its high ammonia and acid content. The introduction of such fertilization will not only not be beneficial, but also spoil the soil and destroy the plants.
Semi-over-matured is less dangerous, however, the concentration of harmful substances in it is still quite high. An additional risk is posed by weed seeds and helminth eggs, which will not lose their viability in six months. Usually, semi-rotted manure is applied before winter, so that during this period its final decomposition occurs.
Rotted pig manure
Over-matured pig manure loses part of its original volume due to moisture evaporation. The concentration of nitrogen and acid in it is reduced to an acceptable level, so it can already be used for feeding fruit trees, berry bushes, tomatoes, and potatoes. At the same time, it is advisable not to exceed the fertilizer application rate, which is 7 kg per 1 sq. m. It is brought in in the fall, usually for plowing.
After exposure for 1.5 years or more, pig manure turns into humus, completely losing all negative properties. The weed seeds contained in it lose their germination, and the helminth eggs lose their viability. This fertilizer is complete, it can be used throughout the season, but for best results, it should be combined with cattle, horse or rabbit manure.
Pig manure processing rules
The best way to process pig manure to turn it into a complete fertilizer is composting. The essence of this method is laying excrement in layers, between which grass, fallen leaves or straw are placed.
The Compost Pit Can Help Turn Pig Dung Into A Complete Fertilizer
Accelerated processes of decomposition of organic residues occur inside such a "puff cake", which is accompanied by a significant increase in temperature. In such conditions, pork manure is disinfected, weed seeds lose their germination, and pest larvae and helminth eggs simply die.
For composting, it is better to dig a special hole, which can be gradually filled with excrement and plant residues.
Important! The compost pit must have direct contact with the soil, otherwise worms cannot get inside, improving the structure of the fertilizer and enriching it with humus.
Avoid making the compost pit too deep. Otherwise, the lower layers will not overheat, but rot due to lack of oxygen. Better to make it wider. After filling the pit until the compost has fully matured, you need to wait about 1 year. The readiness of the fertilizer for use is determined by its color and smell. Completely rotted compost has a dark brown color and a loose crumbly structure. The unpleasant smell characteristic of fresh feces should be completely absent from the finished fertilizer. Ripe compost smells like earth or has a light scent of sweetness.
How to use pig manure as fertilizer
In the garden, pig manure can be used for various purposes. In composted form, it is used to increase soil fertility, improve its structure, loosen clay areas, and attract worms. The prepared compost can be used as mulch. In combination with the excrement of other animals, it is suitable for creating "warm" beds.
To restore soil structure
To increase looseness and improve the structure of the soil, it is advisable to use bedding manure, which includes straw or sawdust. These porous materials additionally loosen the soil and increase its breathability.
The best way to use pig manure is to apply for digging
Such fertilizer is used, as a rule, in spring or autumn, scattering it over the surface before plowing or digging a site.
For soil enrichment
The microelements included in the fertilizer can significantly increase soil fertility. This is especially true for plants that are sensitive to a lack of nitrogen, it is for them that feeding will be especially useful.
The greatest efficiency from application can be obtained by combining pig manure with others, especially horse and rabbit manure. This fertilizer contains all the trace elements necessary for plants. In this case, one must remember about the negative properties and take the necessary measures to level them.
Fresh or semi-rotten pig manure cannot be used as mulch. Any contact with it will lead to burns or death of the plant, since this is tantamount to the introduction of a lethal dose of urea. Only fully matured compost can be used for mulching, and even so, direct contact should be avoided.
Fully rotted manure compost can be used for soil mulching
A layer of this fertilizer can cover the root zone, for example, of a fruit tree, but the mulch should not come into contact with its trunk.
For heating beds
Pig manure belongs to the "cold" species. Due to the slow rate of decomposition, it practically does not cause an increase in temperature, so it is useless to use it in its pure form for arranging "warm" beds. The desired effect can only be achieved if used in combination with horse or rabbit.
Important! Cattle manure also belongs to the "cold" type, combining pork manure with it will not give a heating effect.
Can fresh pig manure be used as fertilizer
Fresh pig manure is used as fertilizer only as a last resort. If the situation is hopeless and there are no other fertilizers, then everything must be done to reduce the levels of ammonia and acid in it. To do this, it is mixed with other species (first of all, with horse or rabbit), and lime or chalk is additionally added to reduce acidity.
Rules for the use of pig manure
Pig manure can be used as a garden fertilizer in several ways. The most common is composting followed by laying in the soil to improve the structure of the soil and increase its fertility. And also it can be used for feeding in the form of an aqueous infusion, to which lime is added to reduce acidity. Such fertilizers are applied only in special grooves or annular grooves in the root zone of trees; it is impossible to allow liquid to get on the trunk and foliage.
Liquid top dressing is applied only to the annular grooves
Another way to use pig manure is to burn it. In the dried feces, both weed seeds and the larvae of various parasites contained in fresh excrement are completely destroyed. All minerals are retained in the resulting ash, this fertilizer can be used in the future without any restrictions, laying in the soil at the rate of 1 kg per 1 sq. m.
How to distinguish pig manure from cow dung
Pig manure can be distinguished from cow manure by several signs, both visual and laboratory:
- Pork has a pungent unpleasant odor, in which the presence of ammonia is felt.
- Cattle feces contain only plant components and a small amount of grain; in pork, residues of compound feed and particles of animal feed can be found.
- Cow remains homogeneous for a longer period of time, while pigs quickly decompose into solid and liquid fractions.
- The acidity indicator will show a much more acidic reaction in the pork.
Another way to distinguish cattle manure from pork manure is price. For a conscientious seller, the latter will always cost less than any other, since it has the lowest utility coefficient.
Forgery when selling manure is by no means a rare occurrence
Unfortunately, there are a lot of cases when one type is given out for another or different variants are simply mixed. Therefore, an announcement of the form: "Selling cattle manure" from a farm engaged exclusively in pig breeding should definitely alert.
Pig manure can be a normal organic fertilizer, but it takes time. It is best not to use it until it turns into full-fledged compost, and this will take at least 1.5-2 years. However, if everything is done correctly, then after this time it will become an excellent fertilizer, the use of which will significantly increase the fertility of the soil and increase the productivity of the garden.
Reviews of pig manure as fertilizer
Oleg Panov, 39 years old, Rostov-on-Don
We have a pig farm near the city where you can buy ready-made rotted manure, aged for 2 years or more. I take it there all the time and do not complain, quite a decent fertilizer, adequate in price. I spread it under melon, potatoes in the fall, and plow it up in the spring.
Dmitry Sergeev, 56 years old, Vladimir
I have a small pigsty, so there is a problem where to dispose of manure from pigs. I solved it in this way. I dug several holes, which I gradually fill with manure mixed with straw. After filling the pit, I preserve it for 2 years, and then I dig up and take out the compost into the fields before the autumn plowing.
Alexey Ryabokon, 47 years old, Kursk
My pigsty is small, so there is relatively little manure. In addition, there is a stable. I pile the manure in one pile, use it in the garden only after six months of aging. During this time, the pig manure is exhaled, and the horse manure adds nutritional value to the fertilizers. The result is very good.