Grapes are a southern plant, therefore they love warmth and sunlight. The local climate is not very suitable for a thermophilic culture, so special attention should be paid to such important points as proper planting, care and shelter of the vines for the winter. Each gardener determines the timing of planting grapes independently, but most experienced winegrowers claim that it is better to do this in the fall.
What are the advantages of planting in the fall, as well as how to properly plant grapes on the site in the fall - these issues will be addressed in the article.
When is it better to plant grapes: in autumn or spring
Many experts recommend planting grapes in spring only for the reason that this will give the plant more time to develop and root before the harsh winter. However, practice shows that the problem of freezing of seedlings is easily solved by a reliable shelter and deeper planting.
Autumn planting of seedlings has a number of advantages:
- In autumn, the soil is more humid, which is very important for young seedlings that need to take root. During the summer, the grower will have to water the young plants weekly so that they do not dry out.
- Properly buried seedlings do not freeze in winter, because their roots are more than half a meter from the surface of the earth. But the grape seedlings planted in autumn will be hardened, subsequently the vine will be able to withstand frosts stronger than -20 degrees.
- Autumn grapes will wake up earlier, and in spring they will sprout new shoots - the development of such seedlings is faster than those that have been planted since spring.
- Various exhibitions and fairs selling valuable grape varieties take place in autumn. The gardener will have a great opportunity to choose the right variety from a wide range.
Important! Spring seedlings can be planted from mid-April to late June. If the grapes are not seasoned, they must be shaded and watered often, otherwise the seedling will burn in the sun.
When to plant grapes in the fall, each owner decides for himself. Most summer residents do this from mid-October until the onset of severe frosts. The general rule is: at least 10 days must remain until the real winter frost, so that the grapes have time to take root in a new place.
How to plant grapes in autumn
Usually in the fall, grape seedlings are planted with a well-developed root system and several buds. The planting itself is practically no different from the spring planting, the only thing is that the grapes will need to be thoroughly insulated and irrigated 10-14 days before the expected frost.
Attention! In order for the vine to start bearing fruit as early as possible, you need to choose the right variety suitable for growing in your specific region.
Where to plant grapes
The choice of a place for planting seedlings is based on the heat and light-requiring of the plant. It is better to plant grapes from the south side of the site, the east or west side is also suitable.
To protect the plant from extreme cold, do not plant it in lowlands or at the bottom of ravines - this is where the air temperature drops the most. It is better to choose southern slopes that could reliably protect the plant from cold winds and high humidity.
Advice! If possible, it is better to plant grape seedlings near the walls of the house or outbuildings.
In this case, the western or southwestern side is chosen for planting. Throughout the day, the building will be heated in the sun, and in the cool evening and at night it will give the accumulated heat to the vine.
The vineyards love the soil nutritious, loose. Black soil is most suitable for planting seedlings, but, in principle, if you fertilize the hole well, you can plant grapes in any soil. The only thing to consider when choosing a planting site: sandy soil freezes more in winter and dries up faster in summer. In the sand, you need to make a clay castle at the bottom of the pit, which will prevent the leakage of water and nutrients. And also, such vineyards are more sheltered for the winter and young plants are planted a little deeper.
How to choose and prepare grape seedlings for autumn planting
The correct cultivation of grapes begins with the selection of a healthy and robust seedling.
A good fall seedling must meet the following criteria:
- have a brown trunk, up to 50 cm long;
- have one or more green shoots of any length;
- the root system should be well developed, consisting of upper and lower root nodes;
- the roots themselves reach a length of about 15 cm;
- on the cut, the root should be "live", white and moist;
- a good quality seedling is packed in clay protection - moist clay envelops the roots of the grapes;
- seedlings should not be in the sun;
- leaves and young shoots have a rich green color (the pallor of the shade indicates that the plant is greenhouse, not hardened).
Attention! The most important thing is that there are no traces of fungal and other infections, insect damage on the grape seedlings. Infected planting material will definitely not bring high yields.
When grape seedlings are purchased, they need to be planted as quickly as possible. Preliminary preparation of planting material is carried out, for grapes it is as follows:
- First, the grape seedlings are placed in cold water and soaked for 12-24 hours. It is allowed to add growth stimulants to the water, but many experts argue that this will negatively affect the development of the vine in the future.
- Now you need to remove the seedling from the water and inspect it. With sharp scissors, cut the green shoot, leaving 3-4 eyes.
- The upper roots are cut off completely, and those located in the lower node are only slightly shortened to stimulate growth (cut by 1-2 cm).
- To protect the grapes from fungal infections, the plant is treated with any fungicidal agent suitable for vineyards (for example, "Dnoka").
Now the seedling is ready for planting before winter.
Soil preparation and planting of grapes
So that the capricious plant does not freeze out in the cold winter, you need to plant grapes deep enough. The average size of the pit for planting seedlings is 80x80x80 cm, the diameter of the pit can be reduced, but its depth should remain at the level of 0.8-1 meters.
Advice! It is recommended to dig holes for grapes in the same season - in this case, in the fall or at the end of summer.
The distance between adjacent vines should be at least a meter, but if possible, it is better to increase the gaps to two meters. So, at the selected place, they dig a hole of the specified size and perform the following actions:
- 5-10 cm of crushed stone, pebbles or broken brick is poured to the very bottom - this is a drainage layer. Drainage is necessary in order to protect the roots from moisture.
- A pipe is installed in the drain, the end of which will rise above ground level when the hole is buried. The pipe is placed on the side, and it is needed in order to feed the grapes directly to the roots at any time of the year.
- The next layer is nutritious soil or black soil. The thickness of such a pillow is about 25-30 cm. Humus or compost is suitable as a nutrient layer: about eight buckets of fertilizer are poured into each hole.
- Mineral fertilizers are poured on top: 0.3 kg of superphosphate and potassium fertilizer, three liter cans of wood ash. It is necessary to mix fertilizers with the soil, going deeper by 10-15 cm.
- The nutrient layer is covered with a thin layer of black soil so that the roots of the grapes do not burn out from direct contact with fertilizers - 5 cm is enough.
- In the remaining 50 centimeter hole, a small bump is made from the soil. Grapes are planted on it and the roots are carefully straightened, placing them along a cone.
- The hole is gradually covered with earth to the point of growth on the seedling. Lightly compact the soil around the grapes. At this point, the landing can be considered complete.
- Immediately after planting, the grapes need to be watered, spending 20-30 liters for each bush. When the topsoil dries up, it must be loosened.
Important! Before the onset of frost, you need to water the seedling at least twice. You can use a drainage pipe for these purposes, then you do not have to loosen the earth.
The planting of grapes in the fall is completed, now the most important thing is to prepare the seedlings for wintering. In addition to watering, the grapes at this stage do not require any maintenance; only with the onset of real frosts, the seedlings should be covered.
In warm regions, a simple earthen mound above the grapes is enough, its height is about 30-50 cm.In a more severe climate, the grapes are insulated more carefully, wrapping the shoots with plastic wrap, folding them into earthen tunnels, covering them with spruce branches or sawdust.
In any case, do not rush to cover, because this can harm the grapes. If the temperature is above zero, the seedlings can dry out, in addition, insects and rodents threaten them in the ground. Experts advise to cover the vine only after the first frost, so that the plants undergo some hardening.
Everyone decides for themselves: to plant grapes in spring or autumn. This article lists all the advantages of an autumn planting. To better understand all the nuances of this event, you can watch the video: