For the growth of cucumbers and a good harvest, complex feeding is required. Its composition includes useful minerals of various proportions. In a greenhouse for cucumbers, complex fertilizers are applied sequentially. At each stage of plant development, a certain set of minerals is required.
Especially useful top dressing before flowering and during the fruiting of cucumbers. Before planting, attention is paid to soil preparation. Subject to the established proportions, cucumbers will receive nourishment for active growth, the appearance of inflorescences and tasty fruits.
Fertilizer shortage signs
With a lack of nutrients, cucumbers develop more slowly, the leaves turn yellow on them and the inflorescences fall off. By the nature of the negative changes, it is possible to determine which substances the complex feeding should include.
Lack of nitrogen is expressed by certain symptoms:
- lower leaves turn yellow along leaf veins;
- the growth of the main stems and shoots stops;
- the fruits become lighter;
- cucumbers thicken at the stalk.
Potassium deficiency also has a number of manifestations:
- increased foliage growth;
- a yellow border is observed on the lower leaves;
- cucumbers become pear-shaped.
Phosphorus deficiency is characterized by the following symptoms:
- lateral shoots grow more slowly;
- the new leaves are darker in color and smaller.
Calcium deficiency can be determined by a number of symptoms:
- flowers fall;
- the taste and quality of cucumbers deteriorates;
- leaves curl up.
Important! An excess of fertilizer also does not benefit cucumbers.
When saturated with nitrogen, the flowering of cucumbers slows down, a thick stem and dark green leaves grow. Excessive phosphorus content leads to yellowing of cucumber leaves. Excess potassium interferes with the absorption of nitrogen, thereby slowing down the development of the plant. Excessive amounts of calcium provoke the appearance of spots on the leaves of cucumbers.
Useful micronutrients for cucumbers
For the full development of cucumbers, you need to provide high-quality feeding. It is best to apply complex fertilizers that contain various trace elements.
The most effective for cucumbers are nitrogen, potassium and calcium. Complex feeding will help in cases where it is difficult to determine by external signs what substances are lacking in cucumbers.
The main trace element that ensures the development of cucumbers is nitrogen. A seedling is formed on its basis, therefore, nitrogen is introduced into the greenhouse in the first place.
Nitrogen serves as a constituent of proteins that are involved in the formation of the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells. Also, this element forms organic compounds that are vital for plants.
Important! When adding nitrogen to the soil, it must be borne in mind that this substance is contained in manure, peat and compost.
To saturate the soil with nitrogen, a complex fertilizer is required, which additionally contains molybdenum and iron. Thus, nitrogen is transformed into a harmless form and does not accumulate in cucumbers.
Potassium is responsible for the taste and appearance of cucumbers. With a deficiency of this element, the fetus takes on an irregular shape, since the substance spreads unevenly through the tissues.
Plants direct potassium from the soil to the fruits, so its lack is immediately reflected in the state of the foliage.
Complex fertilizer for cucumbers includes potassium sulfate, which increases crop yields. Another of its effects is to increase the immunity of plants. The substance is completely soluble in water and is used for root feeding.
Due to calcium, cell walls and membranes are formed. With its deficiency, the ovaries die, and the fruits lose their taste.
Calcium is present in wood ash, therefore, fertilizer based on it is considered one of the most effective for cucumbers.
Ash contains calcium carbonate, which affects the metabolic processes of the plant. Due to it, the speed of movement of substances increases, and biochemical processes are normalized.
Calcium sulfate is used for complex fertilizers. It is also part of superphosphate, a common mineral fertilizer.
Cucumbers require a small amount of phosphorus, however, it must be supplied constantly. The element is necessary for the growth of cucumbers, the formation of the root system, the setting and ripening of fruits.
Phosphorus is especially important when inflorescences appear. Therefore, it is added to mineral fertilizer after planting cucumbers in the greenhouse.
Sulfur is often used as a compound fertilizer because it helps cucumbers to absorb nitrogen. Sulfur is completely absorbed by plants, does not accumulate in the soil and does not oxidize it.
Types of complex fertilizers
Complex fertilizer can be obtained independently by mixing the components in the required proportions. All constituent elements can be purchased at a gardening store.
Various types of mineral fertilizers are supplied as a ready-to-use complex of substances. For cucumbers, a nitrogen-based top dressing is recommended.
Diammofoska is in the form of granules, which are chemically neutral. Substances dissolve in water and are well absorbed by cucumbers.
This complex fertilizer is applied to the soil to a depth of 10 cm. The components are scattered on the soil surface between cucumbers. Diammofoska is usually used after planting before flowering.
Advice! For 1 sq. m requires up to 15 g of fertilizer.
Diammofoska begins to act immediately after it enters the soil. Due to nitrogen, the growth of cucumbers is activated, after which phosphates help them get stronger. Then potassium promotes the absorption of phosphorus and increases the yield of cucumbers.
Ammofoska is a complex type fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur. This is a universal substance that can be applied regardless of the season, except for autumn.
Important! If you use nitrogen-containing substances in the fall, then this will provoke the active growth of cucumber foliage.
Ammophoska is suitable for all types of soil. This fertilizer is especially necessary for regions with an arid climate, where the demand for nitrogen in cucumbers is especially high.
When using ammophoska, protective equipment is used for the eyes, hands and respiratory organs. If the substance comes into contact with the skin, wash the contact area thoroughly with soap and water.
Nitrophoska is an improved form of ammophoska. According to the content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, there are various options for nitrophoska.
The substance is available in granular form. Sulfuric nitrophoska is used for feeding cucumbers. Its composition additionally contains sulfur. Due to this, not only high-quality feeding is obtained, but also a substance that can repel pests.
If nitrophoska granules are used, then they are introduced into the soil to a depth of 8 cm. To obtain a solution for irrigation, 40 g of the substance per 10 liters of water are required. Each seedling needs up to 0.5 liters of such a solution.
Stages of feeding cucumbers
Nutrition for cucumbers includes several stages. Up to 10 days should elapse between each stage. Additionally, you need to prepare the soil for cucumbers in the autumn and spring.
Complex feeding is required for cucumbers at the following stages:
- after planting seedlings in a permanent place;
- before flowering;
- during the fruiting period.
If necessary, additional feeding can be carried out if the plant is experiencing a lack of nutrients.
It is not recommended to grow cucumbers several times in a row in one place. In a greenhouse, this rule is much more difficult to follow. If you need to choose the location of the greenhouse, then preference is given to flat areas without darkening.
Important! After harvesting cucumbers, which usually occurs in August-September, the soil needs to be dug up.
Be sure to remove a layer of earth up to 10 cm thick, where harmful bacteria and disease spores accumulate. The greenhouse room is disinfected with a solution of copper sulfate or other substances.
In the fall, you can plant mustard in the greenhouse, which grows in about a month. This plant will become a good fertilizer for the soil in the future. In addition, mustard serves as a protection against pests.
The soil for the greenhouse must be formed in the fall. This requires equal proportions of the following components:
- sod land or black soil.
A complex fertilizer is added to the resulting soil per 1 square meter:
- ash - 200 g;
- superphosphate - 1 tablespoon
After the introduction of these components, the soil is dug up. The soil must be highly fertile, breathable and absorb moisture.
Planting cucumbers can be done early - from early to mid-May. This option is suitable for regions with a warm climate. Late planting starts in late May and lasts until early June.
Before planting cucumbers in the greenhouse, you need to prepare the soil and apply a complex of fertilizers. Work is carried out a week before planting cucumbers.
Beforehand, the soil is carefully dug up. Complex fertilizer is added to 1 square meter of soil:
- ammonium nitrate - 10 g;
- superphosphate –30 g;
- potassium sulfate - 10 g.
To disinfect the soil, a solution of potassium permanganate is used (2 g per 10 l of water). This solution is poured over the land that has received complex fertilizer. Then the surface of the beds is covered with foil and left for a week. After that, they start planting cucumbers.
Advice! New greenhouses require a mixture of turf soil and manure.
First, manure is laid, which is dug up to a depth of 20 cm. Fresh manure is applied to the resulting mixture with the addition of sawdust. This creates an effective drainage layer.
The top layer of soil for cucumbers is compost up to 25 cm thick. After this preparation, the soil is enriched with complex fertilizer.
Fertilizers for seedlings
First, the seedlings of cucumbers are grown, which are then transferred to the greenhouse. The seeds are preliminarily disinfected, after which they are dried and planted in boxes. For seedlings, a soil is prepared, consisting of peat, garden soil and humus.
Additionally, the soil is treated with a potassium permanganate solution to eliminate harmful microorganisms. Then the soil is watered with warm water and dried.
Cucumber seeds are planted in the resulting soil. The first shoots appear after 3-5 days. Several cucumbers are planted in each container, then the strongest shoots are left.
Advice! Planting in a greenhouse is performed after the second or third leaf appears in the seedlings.
Plants are transferred in warm weather. It is best to choose a cloudy day, morning or evening. First, the ground in the boxes and the greenhouse must be watered.
Ammophoska is placed in the finished well. Its composition does not contain chlorine and sodium, which have an aggressive effect.
Important! For 1 sq. m of soil is enough up to 30 g of ammofoska.
Then the cucumbers are carefully planted, covered with earth and watered with warm water.
Top dressing during flowering
During the growing period of cucumbers, it is not necessary to apply complex fertilizer before flowering. If the seedlings develop well, then there is no need to use additional substances.
Attention! Before flowering, a fertilizer containing nitrogen is selected for cucumbers.
When cucumbers develop slowly, then be sure to feed them. The first feeding is performed 2 weeks after transplanting.
The composition of the first feeding includes the following fertilizers:
- urea - 1 tablespoon;
- superphosphate - 60 g;
- water - 10 liters.
Another option for complex fertilizer contains the following components:
- ammonium nitrate - 10 g;
- superphosphate - 10 g;
- potassium salt - 10 g;
- water - 10 liters.
On the surface of the bed, you need to scatter diammophoska or ammophoska, and then loosen the soil. So, cucumbers will receive nitrogen necessary for full development.
In addition, organic fertilizers are used: slurry, chicken or cow dung. Superphosphate can be added to the mullein solution.
The second feeding is done before the flowering of cucumbers. This is a mandatory step in plant care, even if the first feeding has not been performed.
The composition of the second make-up includes:
- potassium nitrate - 20 g;
- ammonium nitrate - 30 g;
- superphosphate - 40 g;
- water - 10 liters.
Advice! For cucumbers, a mixture of ash and superphosphate is useful. Fertilizer must be applied to the soil by loosening.
Watering with complex fertilizer is performed under the root of cucumbers. For 1 square meter of land, up to 3 liters of solution are required. Organic fertilizer (infusion of green grass) is used for complete feeding.
Top dressing during fruiting
During fruiting, cucumbers require an influx of nutrients. A complex fertilizer, including potassium and magnesium, will help to provide it. The nitrogen concentration for such feeding is kept to a minimum.
Nitrophoska is applied after the first fruits appear. Fertilizer is obtained by dissolving 1 tbsp. substances in 10 liters of water.
If the nitrogen acts after fertilization, then the phosphorus compounds are activated after a few weeks. Potassium influences the taste of cucumbers as it helps in the production of plant sugar.
You can provide cucumbers with potassium by adding potassium nitrate. 10 liters of water requires up to 30 g of this substance. Potassium replenishment is made using fertilizer obtained by mixing a glass of ash and a bucket of water.
Important! The following dressings are carried out every week.
During the period of fruit formation, additional mineral feeding is often required. Its purpose is to prolong fruiting and increase the number of ovaries. A solution of food water has a beneficial effect for cucumbers. It is diluted in an amount of up to 30 g per bucket of water.
Complex fertilizers for cucumbers include nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium. Cucumbers require feeding throughout their entire life cycle. It is allowed to apply fertilizers even at the stage of soil preparation. In the future, cucumbers need nutrients during flowering and fruiting. The frequency of feeding depends on the condition of the plants.
You can get a fertilizer with a complex effect by mixing the necessary components. An easier way is to purchase ready-made substances. They contain useful components in the required proportions and are completely ready for use. When working with complex fertilizers, personal protective equipment is required.