In the course of breeding work to create crops suitable for cultivation in the central regions of Russia, the Dessert apricot was created. It turned out to be a winter-hardy, mid-season variety with good taste characteristics. Subject to all the conditions of agricultural technology, the crop gives high yields in the personal plots of central Russia.
The author and originator of the variety is the scientist breeder A. N. Venyaminov. Extensive selection work was carried out in collaboration with L. A. Dolmatova. The Dessertny variety was obtained on the basis of the Voronezh Agricultural Institute.
The new crop was bred in the process of re-pollination of varieties of the Michurinsky selection, Comrade and Best Michurinsky. A mixture of the pollen of these plants was used to process the Western European apricot Louise. The result is a winter-hardy variety with a high yield and good taste characteristics. In the photo you can see that the Dessert apricot has large, rounded fruits.
The variety was not included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation. Apricot Dessert is recommended to be cultivated in the Central Black Earth regions and in the south.
At the turn of the 70-80s, the agronomist A. M. Golubev, based on the Dessertny variety, developed his own variety of apricots. It has retained the taste of the original. This variety, in order to avoid confusion, was named Dessert Golubeva.
Apricots densely cover a branchy, fast-growing tree
Description of apricot variety Dessert
The culture is characterized by strong shoot growth. The crown is dense, voluminous, rounded. An adult plant grows up to 5 m.
The bark of the trunk and old shoots is brown, and the young branches are brown-red. In older trees, the trunk surface is cracked. The bark and buds easily tolerate winter and spring frosts.
The leaves are ovoid with jagged edges. The length of the leaf ranges from 5 to 9 cm. The petioles are short - up to 3 cm.
The fruits are rounded drupes, slightly flattened on the sides, their average weight is 30 g. The surface color of the fruit is light yellow, the color of the flesh is reddish.
The lateral surface of the fruit Dessert turns red-orange during ripening
Dessert apricot bears fruit for 4 years after planting. There are few drupes on young trees, but they are large, their weight can reach 50 g. The skin of an apricot is thin, densely covered with fluff, the flesh is dense and juicy. Sweet dessert taste, with a slight sourness, strong characteristic aroma.
The stone does not exceed 10% of the total fruit volume. At the stage of consumer maturity, it separates well from the pulp. Fruit ripening occurs at the end of July.
The roots of the tree penetrate 60-100 cm deep into the soil. Some shoots can grow up to 8 m, this is the reason for the good drought resistance of Dessert apricot.
In terms of the quality of fruits, the northern variety Dessertny is one of the best, in terms of taste it is not inferior to the popular southern hybrids.
The variety is ideal for cultivation in the central region. Climatic conditions correspond to its characteristics.
Drought tolerance, winter hardiness
Dessert apricot easily tolerates a short drought. During the hot summer, it needs watering.
The Dessert variety is distinguished by winter hardiness, the bark and buds of the plant easily tolerate a drop in temperature to minus marks.
Young seedlings up to 4 years old need shelter for the winter
Pollinators Apricot Dessert
This is a self-fertile crop, does not need pollinators. But to increase the yield, a winter-hardy mid-season variety is planted nearby, the flowering and fruiting dates of which coincide with the Dessert apricot. Such crops include varieties: "Aquarius", "Countess", "Monastyrsky", "Lel", "Favorite", "Detsky".
Depending on the region of cultivation, Dessert apricot blooms in late March or early April before the leaves open. In the south, the culture releases buds earlier, in the middle lane - later, in the second half of April. For apricot flowering, a temperature of at least + 10 ᵒС is required.
The flowers of the Dessertny variety are medium-sized, up to 3 cm in diameter, the petals are rounded white or pale pink
The duration of the budding process is 10 days. Pollination at this time occurs in windy weather.
Ripening dates of apricot Dessert
The first fruits of the Dessert apricot are harvested at the end of July. In the Moscow region, drupes of the southern tree can be eaten in early August. The ripening period is extended, the harvest is harvested within a month.
Dessert apricot is classified as a fruitful variety. Up to 3 buckets of fruit are harvested from one tree for the entire fruiting period, this is about 45 kg of harvest.
Scope of the fruit
Dessert apricot is consumed fresh and processed. It is suitable for making jams, preserves, soufflés. The taste of ripe fruits is good in compotes and fruit drinks, Dessert apricots are also suitable for winter preparations, for preparing dried fruits.
Disease and pest resistance
The variety is resistant to many garden pests and diseases. To prevent fungal infections, the tree is treated with fungicides in early spring. Timely pruning and harvesting of plant residues is a good prevention of leaf rollers, aphids, and plum moth.
Advantages and disadvantages
There are practically no disadvantages of the variety. The only drawback is the poor fruiting of Dessert apricot in regions with a very warm climate.
Advantages of the variety:
- resistance to drought, frost, disease;
- high productivity;
- good taste of the fruit.
Dessert apricot has good commercial characteristics: it does not deteriorate during transportation, it can be stored in a cool room for up to 14 days.
For planting Apricot Dessert, seedlings are purchased at least 2 years old. You can also grow a culture from a seed, but with this method, the taste of the fruit is significantly reduced.
The seedling is rooted in the open field in early April. If the air has not warmed up to above-zero temperature, the disembarkation can be postponed to the second half of the month.
Rooting of young trees in spring is carried out before the buds are pecked on the branches.
Choosing the right place
For a young tree of the Dessertny variety, a well-lit place on the south side of the site is chosen. The seedling must be protected from the wind; the tree must not be placed in a low area where moisture accumulates.
The soil is loosened, the plant will not take root on dense, compacted earth. Loam, sandy loam, garden soil with humus are suitable for planting.
What crops can and cannot be planted next to an apricot
Dessert apricot is planted next to other representatives of the species. A plant gives a high yield if the timing of flowering and fruiting of other varieties of apricots coincides with its own.
It is not recommended to plant apple trees, plums, pears next to apricots - these crops have common pests and elements consumed from the soil. Also, it is not recommended to plant Dessert apricot next to a walnut, under its dense crown the garden culture does not bear fruit.
Selection and preparation of planting material
It is better to purchase planting material in the nursery. Seedlings older than 2 years old, grown in similar climatic conditions with the planting site, take root well. The tree should be strong, with an even trunk and a well-developed rhizome.
Seedlings with a closed root system are planted in containers. Trees with an open rhizome are soaked for 10 hours in a root formation stimulator.
It is better to prepare the planting holes in the fall. The mass of earth extracted during digging is mixed with humus in equal parts. If it was not possible to prepare the site in the fall, planting is carried out in April.
- Dig a hole 2 times the volume of the roots.
Root processes should be freely located in the hole
- Lay a crushed stone drainage layer on the bottom.
- Pour a mound of loosened soil over the drainage.
- Place the seedling vertically, level the roots on the surface of the mound.
- Cover the rhizome with earth mixed with humus so that the root collar is 5 cm above the soil surface.
Before or after rooting, a peg is driven in next to the seedling, the tree is tied to it
Follow-up care of the culture
After planting, the tree is watered with 2 buckets of water. Then the soil surface is mulched with sawdust or wood chips. The rooted seedling is pruned, creating a sparse-tiered crown shape.
In the process of growth in different years, the branches of the tree are cut so that they grow in breadth, and do not stretch up
From the second year after planting, nitrogen fertilizers are applied under the root. The procedure is carried out in early spring.
Diseases and pests
Despite the fact that Dessert apricot is resistant to diseases, in rare cases it is overcome by cytosporosis. At the first signs of the disease, the damaged branches are cut off and burned. Wood processing is carried out with Bordeaux liquid.
Cytosporosis is a dangerous disease that affects individual branches, subsequently the whole tree dries up
During the ripening period, the plum moth can be seen on the tree. The insect damages ripening apricots, reducing crop yields. Spraying with insecticides will help get rid of the pest.
The larval caterpillars of the moth feed on the pulp of the drupe, destroying the crop
Dessert apricot is a southern crop adapted to the climatic conditions of central Russia. The variety has a high yield, good taste characteristics. Crop care is quite simple: watering 2-3 times per season, pruning in spring and autumn, preventive spraying are the main conditions for growing a fruit tree.
Alina Voronova, 39 years old, Stupino
Apricot Dessert is the first thermophilic culture that has taken root in my summer cottage. The fruit has not yet been eaten, the seedling is young. For the winter I try to wrap up the tree, I'm afraid that it will freeze.
I Valery Abramov, 45 years old, Novgorod
I didn't believe that apricots can be grown in our climate. Rather, they are grown, but the quality of the fruit is not very good. In the nursery I bought a seedling of the Dessertny variety. I collected the first apricots after 5 years. They are really big, juicy and sweet.
Inga Vasnetsova, 30 years old, Novokuznetsk
I am trying hard to grow apricots in our region. Until 2016, it did not work. The Dessert variety finally got accustomed and started. I wrap the tree for the winter, I don't open it early in the spring, as there was a sad experience of freezing of the buds. Hopefully this year I will enjoy my first harvest as winter was warm and spring came early.