A photo of a hornbeam mushroom and a detailed description of the fruiting body will help inexperienced mushroom pickers distinguish it from false varieties, which may be inedible and even poisonous. In Russia, many common names of this species are widespread: gray boletus or elm, gray boletus and others.
Where does the mushroom hornbeam grow?
Grabovik (Latin Leccinellum pseudoscabrum) is widespread in the southern regions of the country, where the climate is quite mild. A large number of mushrooms are found in mountainous terrain, but especially often gray gibber is found in the Caucasus. Fruiting begins in June and ends in October, sometimes in November.
The hornbeam forms mycorrhiza with many trees: with birch, hazel, poplar, however, most likely the fungus can be found under the hornbeam. It was the connection with this plant that formed the basis for the name of the species.
Important! In coniferous forests, gray knobs are practically not found. It can rarely be found in mixed forests.
What does a grabber look like
The hat of the gray stump can grow up to 10-15 cm in diameter. In its shape, it resembles a hemisphere with tucked edges, however, in ripe fruit bodies, the cap takes on the appearance of a kind of pillow. It is slightly velvety to the touch, wrinkled in places, especially in overripe specimens. The color of the cap is olive or light brown. After rain, the surface of the mushroom appears glossy.
The boletus pulp is rather soft, but not too loose. The older the hornbeam is, the tougher its fruiting body. On the cut, the pulp is at first white, but within 10-20 minutes it turns gray, and then completely blackens. The taste and smell of gray stump is pleasant.
According to the description of this mushroom, the leg of the hornbeam is elongated and cylindrical, however, a noticeable expansion is observed near the ground itself, as can be seen in the photo below. Above it is grayish-olive, but the lower, the darker its color. The height of the leg is on average 12 cm, the diameter is 3-4 cm.
In mature hornbeams, the cap is sometimes covered with grooves and folds.
Whether the grab is edible or not
Grabovik belongs to edible mushrooms, however, it is not recommended to use them raw. The taste of mushrooms is fully revealed after heat treatment: boiling, drying or frying. Also, gray stumps can be pickled and salted.
Boletus boletus is not as highly valued as its closest relative, boletus boletus. Despite the fact that they are similar in taste, the hornbeam has a slightly different pulp structure. It is softer, which is why the gray rump spoils quickly enough if you do not expose it to drying or freezing. Immediately after harvesting, everything is thoroughly washed and sent to harvesting, or on the same day they are used directly to prepare a dish.
Benefits and harm to the body
Grabovik, like other edible representatives of the Boletov family, belongs to the valuable mushrooms of the second category. Its fruit body is a dietary product - 100 g of pulp contains about 30 kcal. In addition, the gray stump contains a high content of vitamins B, C, E, PP and mineral components. The fibrous structure of mushrooms helps cleanse the intestines of various toxins and toxins.
Advice! A person who first tastes a dish from a hornbeam should start with a small portion. Cases of poisoning with a hornbeam were not noted, however, any mushrooms are quite heavy food. In large quantities, they can cause stomach upset.
The gall mushroom (lat.Tylopilus felleus) or bitterness is one of the most dangerous counterparts of the gray stump. This false species is classified as poisonous, and a very small piece is enough for the toxins contained in it to cause food poisoning.
Important! In the reference literature, gall fungus is defined in different ways - either as a conditionally edible mushroom that can be eaten after soaking, or as poisonous. However, it is best not to put your health at risk and not use bitter in cooking.
The gall fungus is found in large quantities in the coniferous forests of central Russia, most often on sandy soil. Fruiting of a twin falls on the period from June to October.
Bittersweet are distinguished by a convex cap, the diameter of which is about 10 cm. Its surface is dry and smooth, light brown or ocher. If you make a small incision on the fruit body, then its pulp will turn pink within 10 minutes. There is no pronounced smell of bitterness.
The leg of the gall fungus is in the form of a club, which is covered with a mesh pattern. Spores are pink.
Gorchak differs from gray stump in a more voluminous hat
The rake should be harvested according to generally accepted rules that apply to almost all types of mushrooms:
- It is better to go to the forest early in the morning, when the air is still cool at night, and there is dew on the grass and leaves. The fruits harvested in such weather retain their fresh appearance longer.
- You cannot taste unknown mushrooms - strong toxic substances can be contained in their pulp.
- The harvested crop is placed in a wicker basket with gaps. It is impossible to put hornbeams in plastic bags - they will quickly become inflamed and become unusable.
- Fruit bodies, even with minor signs of spoilage, are best left untouched.
- In search of mushrooms, it is recommended to lift foliage and grass with a long stick, and not with bare hands, so as not to accidentally stumble upon poisonous plants.
Separately, it should be noted that you can twist the found mushroom out of the soil. The fruit body is slightly swayed from side to side, and then, when the hornbeam is already removed, sprinkle the mycelium with soil and leaves. So next year there will be a new crop here.
Important! Old grabbers are usually not harvested. Like almost all mushrooms, they quickly accumulate heavy metals. Such fruiting bodies will do more harm to the human body than good.
The rake can be subjected to a variety of heat treatment methods. Its pulp is quite dense and fibrous, which is especially convenient for preparing various marinades and salty snacks. The hornbeam is also dried for the winter, boiled or fried to serve as a first course.
Advice! The fruit body is often eaten away by worms, therefore, before cooking, it is necessary to carefully examine all parts of the hornbeam.
The photo of the grabber mushroom and its description are designed to reduce the risk of error during the search to a minimum, but even so there is a danger of picking up a false view. In order to prevent this from happening, it is recommended that you familiarize yourself with the most common twins of the gray boletus. The most dangerous of these is the gall mushroom, which is also called bitterness.
In addition, you can learn more about what gray obabok looks like in the video below: