The quince Nikolayn planted on the site serves as its decoration at any time of the year. The shrub blooms beautifully and profusely, its foliage is decorative in summer and autumn, and yellow, unusual-looking fruits remain on the branches even after leaf fall.
The plant belongs to the Pink family
Quince has been known to mankind for over 4000 years. In the wild, fruit crops grow in the Caucasus, China and Japan. It is these regions that are considered the birthplace of the plant, from where it came to the territory of modern Turkey, and then to Greece. Quince gradually spread over the Mediterranean, central and southern Europe, Africa and Australia.
In nature, there is a low-growing (up to 80 cm) shrub form of the plant, which is called beautiful quince (Chaenomeles speciosa). By crossing it with Japanese (Chaenomeles japonica), a new species of magnificent quince (Chaenomeles superba) was obtained. As a result of breeding work on it, many new hybrids were bred, one of which is the magnificent quince Nikolayn. Thanks to the characteristics obtained, the distribution area of the culture expanded to more northern regions, up to Norway and Scotland.
Description of quince Nikolayn
Quince Nicoline (Chaenomeles superba Nicoline) is a shrub whose branches form a spreading crown. Their bark is thin, slightly scaly, dark on old shoots, with a reddish or brownish tint. Young branches are greenish-gray, pubescent.
Leaves are oval, ovate, slightly pointed at the top. The upper part is bright green, the lower part is grayish, with pubescence. The length of the leaf plates is about 7 cm, the width is 3 cm.
As you can see in the photo, quince Nikolayn looks very elegant at the time of flowering. Its flowers are bright scarlet or orange, lush, large, collected in a brush of four to five pieces. The diameter of each is about 4 cm. The fruit set is a false apple with five nests where the seeds are located. The shape is round, almost spherical, up to 4 cm in diameter. The skin is yellowish, ribbed. The pulp of the fruit is aromatic, tough, its taste is sweetish, astringent.
Seeds of ripe fruits are brown, pointed
The height of the Japanese quince bush Nikolin
The average height of an adult plant is about 1.2 m. At the base of the Nikolayn quince bush, branches spread along the ground and form dense thickets. The crown extends 1.5 m in width, creating a beautiful pillow-like shape. This allows the plant to be used for hedges.
Quince Nikolayn develops quickly, is unpretentious, in one place it can grow up to fifty years. Cutting, trimming and shaping is tolerant. The shrub feels good in lighted areas, but it also tolerates shading easily. It is unpretentious to soil and care. In addition to these features, the Nikolayn hybrid has other characteristics.
Drought tolerance, winter hardiness
A quince will not freeze if you plant it so that in winter it is covered with snow as much as possible. The plant easily tolerates frosts down to -30 ⁰С, but young shoots can die in severe winters.
Despite the location of the root system in the upper soil layers, the drought resistance of Nikolayn quince is high. It only needs watering during an extremely dry summer.
Important! The shrub has enough moisture per month with a consumption of 30-40 liters per plant.
Flowering period, ripening time and yield
Red large flowers on short pedicels appear on the shoots even before the foliage bloom in the second or third decade of April. The buds bloom gradually, so the process is delayed for a month.
If Nikolayn quince is grown from seeds, the first flowering occurs in the third year of the seedling's life. The yellow fragrant fruits ripen in October, the average weight of each is about 50 g. The yield from an adult bush is 3-5 kg.
Fruits plucked from branches can ripen at home
Disease and pest resistance
Like most varieties, the lovely Nikolin quince is resistant to diseases and pests. The only minus of the hybrid is skin spotting. With the development of pathology, the appearance of the fruits deteriorates, they are not used for processing. To prevent disease, the crown is sprayed with a solution of boric acid (2 g per 1 liter of water) and zinc sulfate, diluted in the same ratio.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
For some time, quince was used only as an ornamental plant. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, they began to eat it, make jams, compotes and preserves.
Having one quince bush, it is easy to propagate it
In addition to this advantage, the Nikolayn hybrid has other advantages. Among them:
- high frost resistance;
- drought resistance;
- regular fruiting;
- quick recovery after frosting or pruning;
- unpretentious care;
- long life expectancy;
- undemanding to the composition of the soil;
- excellent keeping quality and transportability;
- saturation of fruits with vitamins and biologically active substances.
There are not so many disadvantages of quince Nikolayn:
- the presence of thorns on the shoots;
- astringency of fruit taste;
- their small size.
Features of planting and caring for quince Nikolayn
In order for the quince Nikolayn to develop rapidly, look spectacular and serve as an adornment of the site, it is necessary to choose and prepare a place, observe the terms and rules of planting. Despite the unpretentiousness of the plant, even to minimal care it responds with rapid development, abundant flowering and regular fruiting.
The shrub can be propagated by cuttings, cuttings, shoots or seeds.
Quince Nikolayn can be planted both in spring and autumn. In the first case, this is done before sap flow, in early April. Planting in spring allows the seedlings to take root, adapt and prepare for winter.
In the fall, Nikolayn's quince is assigned to a permanent place two weeks before the onset of frost. This time is not enough for the emergence of new roots, but the callus will have time to form.
Quince Nikolayn easily tolerates both drought and prolonged floods, so a place on the southern side of the site is suitable for her, even if the groundwater is shallow. The shrub grows on any soil, but on clay, sod-podzolic, sandy soil with a high humus content, it feels much better.
Important! In the presence of a large amount of peat in the soil, quince Nikolayn blooms and bears fruit worse.
Before disembarking, you need to prepare the site:
- Remove leaves, weeds and plant roots from it.
- Dig to the depth of the shovel bayonet.
- Add ferrous sulfate, ammonium nitrate and colloidal sulfur to the soil.
If the landing site is prepared in the fall, for the winter it is covered with a thick layer of snow, and in the spring it is dug up again or simply loosened.
Soil for quince Nikolayn should have a slightly acidic reaction
Regardless of whether Nikolayn quince is planted in spring or autumn, they adhere to the same scheme:
- Dig a hole 50 cm deep and 90 cm wide.
- A soil mixture is poured at the bottom, consisting of compost, sand and leaf humus, mixed in a ratio of 2: 1: 2.
- 30 g of saltpeter and 200 g of superphosphate are added.
- Mix well.
- Set the seedling in the center of the pit.
- Fall asleep with soil previously extracted.
- Lightly compact the soil.
- A roller of the trunk circle is formed.
- Water abundantly.
- Mulch the soil with sawdust.
To speed up rooting, all shoots of Nikolayn quince are shortened by a third of the length. The cut with a pruner is made 1.5 cm above the kidney.
After planting, the neck is buried at soil level
The plant is undemanding, but minimal care yields a return in the form of luxurious flowering and bountiful harvests. Caring for Nikolayn quince includes several activities: watering, feeding, preparing for winter, loosening and pruning.
Watering and feeding
If the summer is rainy, you shouldn't water Nikolayn's quince. During the dry period, one abundant moisture per month is enough for the plant. To make the fruits juicy and fragrant, additional watering is carried out in August, during the period of their formation.
Top dressing is carried out three times:
- In the spring - nitrogen fertilizers.
- In the middle of summer - potash.
- In the fall - phosphoric.
Nikolayn's quince is cut in the spring. For sanitary purposes, old, dry and damaged branches are removed. Formative pruning is necessary to give the bush the desired shape, to create a beautiful design element for the site. It begins to be carried out when the plant reaches the age of four years. Shoots are cut out, thickening the crown, creeping along the ground and growing vertically.
Garden shears or secateurs must be sharpened sharply
After watering, the soil under the bushes must be loosened to a depth of no more than 10 cm, since the roots of Nikolayn quince are located in the upper layers. Mulching with sawdust, nut shells, chopped bark allows you to retain moisture and prevent weeds.
Preparing for winter
Quince Nikolayn has high winter hardiness, therefore, does not require shelter. In areas with a very harsh climate, it is sufficient to cover the base with snow. Even if the ends of the shoots are frozen over, they will quickly recover after pruning and feeding in the spring.
Application in landscape design
Quince Nikolayn is often used in landscape design because of its high decorativeness and rapid growth. The plant is used as a tapeworm, planting it on the lawn. The combination of a green background and bright orange colors looks very impressive. With adequate pruning and timely removal of shoots, they are used as part of a mixborder in tandem with other ornamental shrubs and conifers, and the Nikolain quince hedge looks great in all seasons.
Harmony in the garden can be achieved through the proximity of quince with water, boulders and alpine slides
Important! Due to the fact that the roots of the bushes are located close to the surface, they are planted to strengthen the slopes.
Quince Nikolayn is an ornamental shrub that can decorate any site, hide flaws and emphasize advantages. The fruits do not have a unique taste, but the amount of vitamins and nutrients is another plus in its favor. It is not difficult to grow and care for quince, and it will bear fruit for several decades without problems.