Tips and tricks

Chuiskaya sea buckthorn


Chuiskaya sea buckthorn, despite its considerable age, is still popular with gardeners throughout the country. This variety is grown in Central Russia and the Far East, Altai and Kuban. This is due to the fact that he has absorbed all the positive qualities of the culture: unpretentiousness, ease of maintenance and good yield. The description of the Chuiskaya sea buckthorn and the technology of its cultivation can be found in this article.

Breeding history

The Chuya variety was obtained as a result of free pollination of wild sea buckthorn growing in the Chuya river valley. This is where the name of the cultivar comes from. When creating a variety by the Altai Scientific Center of Agrobiotechnology, the following goals were pursued:

  • reduction in the number of thorns on the shoots;
  • increased productivity;
  • improving the quality of fruits.

The Chuiskaya sea buckthorn breeding took 18 years. In 1978 she was presented for state variety testing. Below is a photo of Chuiskaya sea buckthorn.

In 1979, the variety was included in the State Register for the North-West, Far East, Ural, West Siberian and some other regions.

Description of berry culture

Chuiskaya sea buckthorn is a deciduous shrub with a wide spreading crown. Grows up to 3 m in height. Used by many gardeners as a fruit variety. It can be grown in various climatic zones, from Kamchatka to Kaliningrad.

General understanding of the variety

Chuiskaya sea buckthorn is usually formed in the form of a small multi-stemmed bush. The crown is round, rather sparse, not prone to thickening. Skeletal branches are pronounced. The thickness of the shoots is average. Leaves are narrow, alternating, long, lanceolate. Their color on last year's branches is light green with a silvery sheen, on the shoots of this year it is darker. Spines are weakly expressed, their number is insignificant.

Important! Chuiskaya sea buckthorn is not a self-fertile plant; a pollinator is required to obtain a harvest.

Berries

The size and quantity of Chui sea buckthorn berries strongly depend on the growing conditions. Basic data on fruits are summarized in the table.

Parameter name

Value

Weight, g

0,85–0,9

Color

Bright orange

The form

Rounded cylindrical, elongated

Peduncle length, mm

2–3

Taste

Sweet and sour

Scent

Pronounced, pleasant

Sugar content,%

6,4–7,2

Berry separation

Dry, light

Ripening terms

Medium late variety, harvest time mid to late August

Productivity, kg

10-11, with intensive agricultural technology - up to 23

Important! The yield and quality of Chuiskaya sea buckthorn fruits are highly dependent on watering. Lack of moisture leads to crushing of the fruit and a halving of the yield.

Characteristic

The main characteristics of the Chuiskaya sea buckthorn variety are presented below.

Main advantages

The undoubted advantage of Chuiskaya sea buckthorn is its yield. However, it cannot be achieved without good agricultural technology. This variety is especially sensitive to watering. Positive qualities are also:

  • undemanding to the composition of the soil;
  • excellent winter hardiness (up to -45 degrees);
  • slight studding of shoots;
  • good fruit taste;
  • versatility of the use of berries;
  • good transportability.

It should be noted that the Chuiskaya sea buckthorn begins to produce crops from the age of 3 years, and it bears fruit stably.

Flowering period and ripening time

The opening of the buds and ripening of the Chuiskaya sea buckthorn strongly depend on the growing area and weather conditions. In most regions, flowering time is mid-May and lasts 6-12 days. Chuiskaya sea buckthorn berries reach full maturity in the second half of August.

Scope of berries

The berries of the Chuiskaya sea buckthorn variety are universal in their purpose. They can be consumed both fresh and processed. Most often, the fruits are dried, they are made into preserves, jams, and the juice is squeezed out. You can also use Chuiskaya sea buckthorn to obtain sea buckthorn oil, but its content in fruits does not exceed 2.9%. This is half that of technical varieties.

Disease and pest resistance

Subject to the rules of cultivation, Chuiskaya sea buckthorn is rarely affected by diseases and pests. To prevent the appearance of fungal infections, measures are taken to clean and thin the crown, and also treat the bushes with preparations containing copper. From insect pests, spraying with special preparations is carried out.

Advantages and disadvantages of the variety

Chuiskaya sea buckthorn is not a pronounced leader in comparison with other varieties. There are more fruitful and sweeter ones. Rather, she can be called a strong middle peasant. It is not for nothing that at the institute this variety is the benchmark in many respects.

The positive qualities of Chuiskaya can be attributed to its frost resistance, to the negative - the strong dependence of the crop on correct agricultural technology.

Landing rules

Planting rules for the Chuiskaya variety do not differ from those generally accepted for this type of plant. Sea buckthorn is planted in a group, since both female and male individuals are needed to obtain berries.

When planting, it should be taken into account that the adult bushes of the Chuiskaya variety will be quite high, but the annual growth of seedlings is small.

Recommended timing

Most gardeners consider the early spring to be the best time for planting Chuy sea buckthorn. In the fall, after the fall of leaves, you can start excavation work in the south. Seabuckthorn with a closed root system is planted at any time, except for the hot summer months.

If the planting dates are missed, it is better to dig in young Chuiskaya sea buckthorn trees until spring. To do this, they are laid in a ditch 0.5 meters deep, directing the crown to the south. The roots are covered with earth, and after the first frost, all the seedlings must be covered, leaving only the top outside. Then a layer of spruce branches is laid on top, and after the snow falls, an additional shelter is made of it.

Choosing the right place

Chuiskaya sea buckthorn loves sunlight. It should be planted in an open space, at a distance of at least 2-3 m from other garden trees. There should be no garden beds nearby, otherwise, when digging, there is a great risk of damaging the shallow roots. You should not plant Chuyskaya sea buckthorn next to a high fence or garden buildings. And also it is necessary to avoid places that can periodically be flooded or with a groundwater level above 1 m.

Soil preparation

It is better to prepare planting holes for Chuiskaya sea buckthorn in advance. The removed fertile soil must be preserved. A nutritious soil mixture is made from it, which will fill the root system of the seedling. For its preparation, the following components are taken:

  • compost or humus - 1 bucket;
  • river sand - 1 bucket;
  • fertile soil - 2 buckets;
  • wood ash - 0.5 buckets;
  • superphosphate - 0.2 kg.

All components must be mixed well.

Selection and preparation of seedlings

High-quality planting material is the key to a good harvest. It is best to choose bushes of the second year of life. By this time, the plant should be 35-50 cm long, and the roots should be at least 20 cm.

When choosing a Chuiskaya sea buckthorn seedling, you need to pay special attention to its bark. It should not flake off or be brown. This indicates that the seedling is damaged by the cold, it will no longer be able to recover.

Algorithm and scheme of landing

Chuiskaya sea buckthorn seedlings can be arranged in rows or staggered. For high-quality pollination, the ratio of male to female trees should be no more than 1: 5. Many gardeners reduce the proportion as male trees die more often. They are planted on the windward side of the group or surrounded by female specimens. The best pollinator for Chuiskaya sea buckthorn is a male tree of the same variety.

The planting holes should be at least 2 m apart from each other. A support is driven into the bottom of each with an offset from the center, to which a young tree will be tied. It is planted vertically, the roots are straightened and covered with a nutrient mixture, tamping the soil to prevent the formation of voids. In this case, the root collar should be at a height of 5–6 cm from the ground level. The Chuiskaya sea buckthorn seedling must be tied to the support.

Important! After planting, abundant watering is required. After that, the soil can be mulched with grass or straw.

Follow-up care of the culture

Planting and caring for Chuiskaya sea buckthorn is not difficult. Unlike fruit trees, the near-trunk circle is not dug up near the sea buckthorn so as not to damage the closely lying roots.

Necessary activities

For the correct formation of the bush, regular pruning will be required, and for good fruiting, maintaining soil moisture and sometimes top dressing. The adult Chuiskaya sea buckthorn, especially in dry weather, will need regular watering. You need to moisten the entire root zone. Once every three to four years, organic matter is introduced under the bush - a bucket of humus or compost mixed with a small amount of superphosphate.

In early spring, the bushes can be fed with nitrophos, scattering it in the root zone.

Weeding and loosening of the near-trunk circles of Chuiskaya sea buckthorn are not carried out. Weeds are simply mown at the root. It is best to mulch the trunk circle with turf. This not only reduces the risk of root damage, but also prevents insect pests and their larvae from emerging from the soil.

Shrub pruning

In the first three years, the Chuiskaya sea buckthorn bush is shaped by pruning. After planting, the seedling is shortened to 10–20 cm in height. The next year, several strong shoots are selected from the formed root shoots, the rest are removed. This will be the basis of the future bush. They carry out autumn and spring sanitary pruning, removing old, dry, broken and diseased branches.

Preparing for winter

Chuiskaya sea buckthorn is a very winter-hardy plant, therefore, no preparatory measures are usually carried out before the winter period. To reduce the risk of damage by rodents, you can make a fence made of metal mesh around the bush, and whitewash the booms. In addition, the trunk circle can be lined with spruce branches, and covered with a layer of turf on top. Such a multi-layer shelter serves as additional protection of the roots from freezing.

Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention

Chuiskaya sea buckthorn has good immunity to diseases. However, in conditions of high humidity or severe neglect of the bushes, fungi may appear on the leaves and bark. The main diseases of sea buckthorn are shown in the table.

Name of the disease

Signs of appearance, consequences

Control and prevention measures

Verticillary wilting

Leaves and branches turn yellow and dry. The plant dies.

The disease is not cured. The plant must be dug up and burned.

Black cancer

Characteristic black spots appear on the bark. At this point, the bark cracks and flies around. The wood turns black.

Timely removal of foci of infection and treatment with copper sulfate. Sections are covered with a mixture of mullein and clay.

Blackleg

It manifests itself as black trunk rot at ground level. The trunk decays and the tree falls.

It appears on young seedlings. It is recommended to plant them in a soil-sandy substrate (1: 1) and water with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.

Septoria

The appearance on the leaves of characteristic brown spots with a colorless middle. The plant sheds its foliage early and usually dies in winter.

Pick off and burn infected leaves. In early spring, the bushes are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid 1%.

Brown spot

Brown spots appear on the leaves, then they merge. Leaves die.

The same as with septoria.

Nectric necrosis

It is detected by the bright red or orange pads of the fungus on the bark of a tree.

Affected shoots must be removed and burned.

Fruit rot

The berries become soft, wither and mummified.

Timely removal of dried berries. For prevention, the bush is sprayed in spring and autumn with 1% Bordeaux liquid.

Insect pests also infrequently attack the Chuiskaya sea buckthorn. Some of them are shown in the table.

Name of the pest

What hurts

Methods of control and prevention

Sea buckthorn fly

Berries, larvae develop in them

Preventive spraying with Fufanon, Iskra, Inta-Vir, etc.

Sea buckthorn aphid

Leaves, from which aphids suck juice

-//-

Sea buckthorn moth

Caterpillars gnaw leaves

-//-

Spider mite

Sucks juice from leaves, buds and flowers.

-//-

Conclusion

Chuiskaya sea buckthorn has long established itself from a good side. It is a reliable and productive variety. And even a novice gardener can cope with its cultivation.

Testimonials

Andrey Pavlovich Sokolov, 57 years old, Kemerovo

For a long time I heard good reviews about Chuiskaya sea buckthorn, so I planted it. I planted it for a long time, back in the last century. I like it, unpretentious, does not require special care. It bears fruit well and has no breaks. Good grade.

Grigory Ivanovich Balashov, 44 years old, Oryol region

I never planted sea buckthorn, but five years ago I decided to try it. Chuiskaya grows from neighbors, and he took shoots from them. All have taken root, now I have a small plantation. Last year there were few berries, but this year there are much more.

Anastasia Mikhailovna Pavlenko, 52 years old, Perm region

I like sea buckthorn. I heard good reviews about the Chuiskaya sea buckthorn variety, and decided to plant it. And for good reason. Good variety, fruitful. And the berry is large, dry. I have three bushes, and it never happened in a year that I didn't pick up a bucket from each one. I heard recently that the self-fertile sea buckthorn Chuiskaya has appeared, now I want to find it, but I have not yet come across it.


Watch the video: Summer pruning Seabuckthorn July 2017 (May 2021).