Despite the successful breeding activity and the emergence of new varieties that are resistant to certain external influences, it is still impossible to grow a healthy crop without systematic treatments of fruit trees. Therefore, every gardener needs to know how and when to spray fruit trees.
Garden work begins in early spring when the snow melts. As soon as the sun has warmed up, it is already possible to open and ventilate winter shelters in the daytime, prune trees and prepare for the first spring spraying.
The need for spring processing
In the spring, along with the trees, pests wake up from hibernation and begin to actively feed on blossoming tender buds and leaves. Intensively sucking juices from leaves and flowers, beetles and caterpillars cause irreparable harm to plants. As a result, the garden will not only fail to produce a full harvest, but may even die.
Spring processing of the garden includes whitewashing of boles, digging near-trunk circles, in which pests hiding in the bark or in the soil under fallen leaves are destroyed, as well as spraying of fruit trees and shrubs. Early treatment is also important because trees and shrubs do not yet have ovaries and fruits in which the chemicals used for spraying could accumulate.
Today's existing tree spraying preparations allow you to choose from a variety of chemical or biological agents for influencing pathogenic microflora and insect pests. However, many gardeners try to get by only with folk methods.
Biological methods of plant protection are gaining in popularity. Their action is based on the activity of living microorganisms-entomophages or toxins secreted by them. According to their lifestyle and feeding habits, entomophages are divided into two groups - predators and parasites. Entomophages can be called live insecticides; some of their species are even specially bred in the laboratory to be released into fields or greenhouses. Therefore, when choosing how to spray fruit trees, you can pay attention to beneficial insects. Among the most famous beneficial predators are:
- ground beetle eating butterflies and their pupae - up to 300 individuals during one season;
- ladybug is an excellent aphid hunter.
Entomophages can be distinguished by their behavior - they are very active, while pests are usually inactive.
Advice! Useful helpers can be attracted to the garden with the help of flowering plants, since they feed on pollen and nectar at the same time.
For this purpose, you can use celery, buckwheat, dill and many other plants.
Of the preparations for spraying fruit trees based on biological action, it can be noted:
- "Trichodermin" - it is used already during the appearance of buds and then the whole season, its active substance is a fungus, effective against scab, various types of rot;
- Planriz contains bacteria that act against powdery mildew, leaf rust and lepidoptera;
- "Pentafag" effectively protects against bacterial cancer, perforated spot and scab;
- "Fitodoctor" acts against late blight and fusarium, root rot;
- "Fitosporin-M" suppresses many bacterial and fungal diseases;
- "Gaupsin" is a universal remedy against pests and diseases;
- Mikosan forms a thin protective film against pathogens on plants.
Particular attention should be paid to "Nemabakt". It contains parasitic entomophages that penetrate the larvae and destroy them. They are capable of:
- during the season to clear the garden of harmful insects;
- winter safely, be useful in the next season.
Biological spraying agents have undoubted advantages:
- they will not accumulate in soil and fruits;
- do not burn plants;
- used in small quantities.
At the same time, biological preparations for spraying fruit trees do not work as quickly as pesticides. Their use is effective only when garden pests appear, that is, at temperatures above +10 degrees. Therefore, the first spraying in the garden in early spring will have to be carried out with chemicals.
Chemical means of protecting trees cope much faster with harmful insects and diseases. In large farms, where the main task is to obtain a beautiful presentation from the fruits, up to one and a half dozen sprays are carried out per season. However, residual amounts of chemical compounds accumulate in smooth, shiny fruits.
Summer residents are trying to reduce the amount of chemicals used to spray fruit trees against pests and diseases. However, it is difficult to completely abandon them. When working with pesticides, keep in mind:
- drugs act quickly;
- their effect persists for a long time;
- each of the compounds decomposes within a certain period;
- the drugs dissolve well in water.
The disadvantages of chemicals for spraying trees include:
- the need for an accurate dosage, otherwise you can cause severe burns to the plants;
- causing harm to the environment;
- addiction of pests to drugs, which forces them to increase the dose or change it;
- sprays can also harm pets.
Important! When spraying fruit trees with chemical compounds, it is necessary to observe safety measures and apply protective equipment.
Most often used for chemical protection:
- copper sulfate solution, which can be used throughout the season against putrefactive processes and many other diseases;
- iron vitriol is important for the full development of plant cells and their saturation with iron;
- Bordeaux liquid, which is also called "blue spraying" - is used without fail;
- urea or urea is used not only as a top dressing, but also as a remedy for pests;
- preparation N 30 has long been known as an effective remedy for aphids and caterpillars.
Especially popular is the "blue spraying" of fruit trees, that is, their treatment with Bordeaux liquid. It contains copper sulfate, which gives the solution a bright blue color, and lime. As a result, the solution acquires a pleasant blue color. Bordeaux liquid is indispensable in the fight against scab, which especially affects young trees in a prolonged cold spring.
For those gardeners who categorically refuse to spray with chemicals, there are many time-tested folk remedies. These include:
- many types of weeds;
- medicinal plants such as chamomile and nettle;
- garden crops - dill, garlic, hot pepper;
- potato and tomato tops;
- coniferous needles:
- products - salt, dry mustard.
Preparation of solutions for spraying trees is also not difficult. Usually, the grass is crushed and poured with cold water for 2-3 days. An infused and strained solution is sprayed on fruit trees and shrubs. Stuffing trees with smoke from tobacco dust is useful - it helps to get rid of aphids and other pests. The choice of available options for spraying trees is great, but their effectiveness is much lower and requires more frequent treatments. Therefore, it is up to each gardener to decide what to spray the fruit trees with.
Many gardeners, in the fight against garden and horticultural diseases, successfully use potassium permanganate spraying. Most recently, this substance was a cheap and affordable antiseptic, but now, unfortunately, it is classified as a prescription drug. However, in the presence of old stocks, it will become an effective remedy against phytophthora in vegetable crops and fungus on berry fields and even fruit trees.
Experienced gardeners prepare a concentrated solution of potassium permanganate and store it in a dark place. If necessary, it is diluted with water and, in a mixture with copper sulfate, is used to spray berry bushes - raspberries, currants and others. Spraying fruit trees and shrubs with potassium permanganate is carried out:
- early spring before budding;
- late autumn - at the end of the growing season.
Potassium permanganate is also used:
- as a source of manganese and potassium for feeding berry bushes, especially those growing on sandstones;
- disinfection of soil under trees and shrubs;
- for disinfection of garden tools.
Factors affecting processing
In the spring, spraying of fruit trees takes place in 4 stages:
- the first is carried out when the kidneys are still asleep;
- in the phase of the so-called green cone, when its tip has just appeared, "blue spraying" is carried out;
- the third processing of fruit trees is carried out when flower buds have already formed, but have not yet opened;
- after the end of the flowering phase, another treatment is carried out.
The exact timing of spraying fruit trees and the type of preparation are determined depending on:
- on the specific climatic conditions of the region;
- weather features of the coming season;
- the age of the trees;
- the prevalence of a particular pest in the region;
- vegetation phases of plants;
- the degree of aggressiveness of the drug;
- the timing of the appearance of different types of pests.
Important! Spraying should be done in dry, sunny weather.
Spring treatments calendar
The first spraying of trees is considered the most important, and it is done before the buds begin to bloom. During this period, those insects that have overwintered in the bark of a tree and near-trunk soil, for example, bark beetles, wake up. As soon as the snow melts and the sun warms up a little, the trees are processed. Pesticides can be used as they are effective against insects but will not harm the tree. The spraying schedule for fruit trees and shrubs in spring is presented in the table.
Schedule of spring treatments with chemicals in the garden
|Time of processing||Purpose of processing||Drugs|
|Early spring||Preventive treatment against pests overwintering in the bark and soil||Copper sulfate|
|Green cone phase||Against fungal diseases and insect larvae||"Blue spraying"|
Broad spectrum insecticides
|Bud formation phase||To improve immunity and fight against ticks and weevils||Bordeaux liquid|
|After flowering||Prevention of putrefactive pathologies, pest control||Combined mixtures|
Before using the drug for spraying fruit trees, you need to carefully read the instructions. It contains information about:
- against which pests it is effective;
- what should be the concentration of the solution;
- are there any contraindications;
- for which phase of the growing season the drug is applicable;
- what the frequency of treatments can be.
For each phase of plant development, certain pests are characteristic, therefore, the spray preparation should be selected correctly, otherwise its use will not give the desired effect. For example, apricot is afraid of perforated spots, as well as moths or leaf rollers. For apples and pears, the most dangerous caterpillars of the apple moth, ticks, and of the diseases - scab. Aphids affect almost all plants.
More often, 3% Bordeaux liquid is used for the first spraying. You can buy it as a set or prepare it yourself. Bordeaux liquid can be replaced with urea with the addition of a small amount of copper sulfate. Such a composition has the property of slowing down the beginning of the growing season for a dozen days, which will protect the tree from recurrent frosts.
Final processing of the garden in spring should be carried out no earlier than 2-3 weeks after the end of flowering. It completes the stages of spring spraying of fruit trees and is directed against the caterpillars of various pests, weevils, ticks, aphids and possible pathologies.
Summer and autumn treatments
Spraying of fruit trees is carried out throughout the growing season, depending on their condition. But too frequent treatments can also damage plants - table 2.
Spraying schedule for fruit trees during the growing season
|Spring||Preventive spraying, control of overwintered pests and emerging larvae||Copper preparations, iron vitriol, blue spraying|
|Summer||Spraying with seasonal pests typical for different plants||Copper preparations, special products.|
Work early in the morning or on a cloudy day
|Autumn||Spraying against insects hibernating in the bark of trees and in near-trunk circles||Bordeaux liquid, other preparations.|
All treatments should be carried out only in dry weather.
The processing of fruit trees and shrubs in the summer requires taking into account some features:
- there is a lot of foliage on the trees, and it can get burns if the wrong spray product is chosen or its concentration is too high;
- for young seedlings, the concentration of the fungicide solution should be much lower;
- by the end of summer, many fruit varieties ripen, which requires careful handling;
- many drugs will harm beneficial insects, so it is advisable to reduce the number of sprays and fight pests with the help of trapping belts;
- it is also recommended to use folk remedies - infusions of onions, garlic, dandelion roots;
- An effective way to control aphids is to plant tobacco in the garden, the smell of which they are afraid of.
Summer spraying of fruit trees is directed mainly against:
- caterpillars of the apple moth;
- larvae of bark beetles;
- different types of aphids;
- spider mites.
Important! Often in the summer, spraying with liquid fertilizers is carried out to feed the trees.
One of the most important types of seasonal work in the garden is the autumn spraying of fruit trees, since at this time there is an active reproduction of pathogenic microflora. Damp warm weather is especially conducive to this process. If the trees are not treated before wintering, disturbances in their development will appear in the spring, which will affect the quality of the crop.
The best remedy for an autumn spraying of fruit trees is Bordeaux liquid. It can be replaced with copper sulfate. These products have a good disinfecting effect. It is also useful to whitewash the trunk of the tree, filling all cracks and pores on the trunk with a solution.
It is difficult to manually spray multiple garden sprays. Therefore, summer residents usually purchase sprayers - devices for uniformly spraying the prepared solution over the crown of a tree or shrub. They are equipped with a pump that sends a jet to the atomizer, breaking it into small particles. The filters installed at the outlet are designed to capture large particles. Fruit tree sprayers are:
- manual - with a simple design for pumping a solution with a volume of up to 2 liters;
- pump pumps are distinguished by a larger capacity - 3-20 liters and the presence of mobile models;
- rechargeable batteries are the most popular, as they provide long-term operation without recharging;
- gasoline - the most comfortable, thanks to a powerful engine and an automated process.
If you surround the garden with care, organize proper care, effective prevention of pests and diseases, it will certainly reward you with a plentiful and tasty harvest.