Many mushroom lovers dream of growing boletus in the country. It turns out that this is quite possible and within the power of even completely inexperienced in this matter.
As a result, you will be able to give yourself pleasure, and please your loved ones with delicious dishes or preparations.
Is it possible to grow boletus at home
An interesting fact is that the industrial cultivation of oil has not spread. This is due to the fact that a huge area of conifers will have to be planted for the mushrooms. Therefore, the best way to reproduce a delicious delicacy is to grow boletus on your site. Subject to agricultural technology and the creation of conditions similar to natural conditions, excellent quality oil is obtained.
Despite the fact that there are several varieties of the mushroom, you can dilute boletus of any modification in the garden. It is enough to prepare a certain composition of the soil, ensure the planting of host trees, and competently care for the plants. Conifers are necessary for boletus, because this type of mushroom forms mycorrhiza with them, in other words, a mutually beneficial community of roots and fungi. In this combination, they mutually provide a comfortable life for each other. Having picked up the necessary tree, you can safely grow boletus on your site.
What conditions must be created for boletus when growing in the country or in the garden
In order to get a harvest in a couple of years, you need to take care of comfortable conditions for mushrooms:
- Have several coniferous trees in the country. For butter, pine is considered the most ideal partner. Pines should not be older than 10 years. Older trees will take a lot of nutrients and moisture from the soil, so oily trees will have to be deficient in these components. As a result, the harvest will turn out to be meager, and the taste of the mushrooms will be far from ideal.
- Choose a place and prepare the ground. If these factors are neglected, the result will also be disappointing.
The most important condition for growing boletus in the country is to bring the environmental conditions as close as possible to those in which they grow in nature.
Methods for growing boletus
Summer residents know different ways of growing mushrooms. Choosing the best one for butter is the key to a good harvest. Usually forest plants propagate:
- Disputes. This method is beneficial in that you do not need to purchase anything. Planting material is easily prepared at home, but the basis must be taken in the forest. For this, wormy, overripe, old boletus, in which spores develop, are suitable. For the fermentation process, you will need river or rain water, a little granulated sugar. You can replace sugar with sourdough from kvass. The hats are crushed (it is enough to knead them with your hands), mixed with water until smooth. The mass is insisted for 24 hours, stirring occasionally. Some mushroom pickers advise to infuse the mixture for several weeks. It is not recommended to freeze and store the composition for a long time. Before use, the starter culture is filtered, the liquid is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10. The prepared area is watered with a solution and mulched. Then the layer of mulch is increased in the fall before the onset of cold weather. The advantage of this option is its budget.
Important! You need to cook the starter culture within 9-10 hours after collecting the butter.
- Mushroom. It is possible to successfully grow boletus in the country by the method of transplanting mycelium from the forest. This is the most efficient way to grow oil at home. However, there is a very important nuance here. It is necessary to transfer the mycelium to the site under a tree of the same type under which the myceliums were collected. The downside is the appearance of the first mushrooms 3-4 years after planting. Plus - an annual high yield and a guaranteed result. Boletus grown in this way are very large and fleshy.
The method is the most famous and popular due to its availability and ease of implementation. There are two types of mycelium - grain and compost. Summer residents prefer the first. A bag of seeds has instructions for use, all points should be followed up to the size of the plot. The harvest is ready to be harvested in 2 years, and the first mushrooms can be enjoyed next year.
Judging by the possibilities, the most acceptable option for boletus is considered to be growing with mycelium or using a purchased mycelium.
How to grow boletus
There is an algorithm adhering to which you can grow boletus at home. The whole procedure consists of simple and familiar actions for summer residents:
- selection and preparation of the site;
- soil preparation;
- preliminary work with planting material;
- landing; care for oils;
Attention! Each item has its own requirements, features and nuances. Without knowing the basic points, it will be frivolous to start growing oil at home.
Choose a site in advance. It is better to allocate a shaded place without active sunlight for planting mushrooms. Then the soil is prepared. A layer of soil 20 cm thick is removed and in its place plant raw materials (grass, chopped wood, needles), earth from the place of mushroom growth in the forest are laid in layers. In the absence of forest soil, you can take garden soil with the addition of humus. It is important that the acid-base balance of the upper layer is similar to that of the forest soil. The garden bed is now ready for mushroom sowing. With the minimum size of the site, it is very popular to grow oil in boxes. This method is very suitable for planting mushrooms indoors. The box is placed in a semi-dark place where diffused sunlight prevails. If there is no such light in the room, you can replace it with electric lighting. The oils have enough light for 3-4 hours a day. With this method, it is necessary to carefully observe the temperature regime and high humidity in the room. For this, dishes with water are placed next to the containers. This method can be used to grow boletus at any time of the year; mushrooms do not have a growing season.
The mycelium is easy to buy ready-made, but it is also easy to prepare it yourself. Next, it will tell you how to prepare both options for planting material. If the summer resident has purchased mycelium, then it is necessary to strictly adhere to the instructions attached to the package. It is imperative to provide the material with the recommended soil composition, ambient air conditions, and the degree of lighting.
The second option is self-prepared mycelium. It is considered to be more popular. This is due to the nutritional characteristics of mushrooms. The main part of the nutrients comes to the oil from the patron trees. Therefore, fruiting bodies can be formed only in the presence of a tree of the appropriate type and soil of a certain composition. The mycelium is prepared from mushroom caps and a growth accelerator. A nutrient solution of yeast and sugar syrup is used as an accelerator. For 1 liter of water, you will need 1 tsp of sugar and yeast. The sawdust of the partner tree is mixed with peat. The mixture is dried, then the bottles (3 L) are filled to half their volume. A sweet solution with yeast is boiled, poured onto peat, and filled with dry sawdust on top to the top of the jar. Close the lid tightly. Leave for 5-6 hours, drain the rest of the solution, mix the substrate, make punctures in it with a stick. Crushed mushroom caps are placed in these punctures, the jars are closed with a lid. Now we need another cover, with a hole 1.5 cm in diameter, covered with a foam stopper. The jar with the future mycelium should be in a place with a temperature of + 23-25 ° C. After 3 months, the substrate with the mycelium is transferred to a dark, cold place (+ 6 ° C) and stored there until sowing.
How to plant boletus in the country or in the garden
Mushroom lovers are trying to breed boletus in their area. Many people like to experiment, and you don't need to go far into the forest. The optimal time for planting is spring. To guarantee a harvest, you need to know exactly how to plant boletus in the garden:
- Prepare the soil under the tree. It is important that the type of ephedra coincides with the one where the boletus was collected in the forest.
- Spread the prepared mycelium evenly around the tree in a thin layer.
- Cover with a thin layer of leaves or grass. Sprinkle earth on top. It is good to shed the garden bed.
- To reduce moisture loss, a layer of leaves is again laid on top, periodically moistening the planting.
After a year, you can pick the first mushrooms grown on your own. A properly prepared mycelium bears fruit for about 15 years. An increase in yield is observed from 5-6 years, before that the number of fruiting bodies may be insignificant.
Features of growing boletus in a personal plot
They do not require special care after planting the boletus, but they still have their own nuances of cultivation. It is very important for growing mushrooms to maintain sufficient soil moisture. Top dressing for mycelium is not needed, unless it is a purchased mycelium. Then you will need to add a growth activator. When and in what quantities - will be indicated by the manufacturer on the packaging of the goods.
Another nuance - the site cannot be loosened, otherwise the damaged mycelium will not give fruit bodies.
In autumn, the garden bed is additionally covered with leaves or straw. In the spring, this layer is removed, leaving only the grass.
Important! Butterlets grown in the garden are not wormy.
This is easily explained by the composition of the soil and the absence of pests that live in the forest.
The gardeners harvest the first crop the next year, then, within 15 years, the mycelium develops and the fruiting increase. If you want to achieve continuous growth of mushrooms on the site, you should lay a new bed annually. Then there is no need to worry that in a few years there will be no oil on the site.
Crop is harvested by hand. Mushrooms can be cut or twisted; plucking is prohibited. This technique destroys the mycelium. The main thing is not to leave the leg in the garden.
Tips for novice mushroom growers
Some summer residents, wanting to dilute boletus on the site, perform all the main points, but do not get a good result. This is due to some mistakes that are made due to ignorance or lack of experience:
- There are several types of boletus, differing in taste and requirements for growing conditions. For planting in the country, it is best to choose a yellowish or ordinary oiler. Both species belong to the second category of edibility and are ubiquitous in Russia.
- It is important to add soil to the soil from the place where the boletus grew in the forest. This is the ideal soil option. In this case, the yield will be much higher.
- You cannot loosen the bed. Inexperienced summer residents believe that this technique improves air access. In fact, they simply injure the mycelium, which may collapse and not bear fruit.
- Harvest properly. Legs must be cut off, even if only hats are needed. The leg left in the garden begins to rot and infects the rest of the mycelium.
- It is recommended to cut the mushrooms when they are young. It is better not to leave overripe and wormy ones at the planting site.
By following simple recommendations, you can grow tasty and healthy boletus in your summer cottage without financial investment.
Some information about oil:
Growing boletus in the country is not only possible, but also useful. Household mushrooms are not susceptible to disease, taste good and have good nutritional value. Adhering to the recommendations, you can safely start planting oil on the site.