Apricot Russian is one of the best frost-resistant varieties adapted for growing in cold regions of the middle zone. This crop is distinguished by its medium tree size, high yield and excellent fruit taste.
The Russian variety was bred on the basis of the North Caucasian Zonal Research Institute. But to date, it has not yet been entered into the State Register of the Russian Federation.
Despite the fact that the crop was bred in the south, the Russian is excellent for growing in regions of central Russia characterized by unstable weather conditions.
Description of culture
The plant can reach a height of 4-4.5 meters, the crown of the tree is spreading, which greatly facilitates the process of collecting fruits. The root system of the apricot is strong, so you need to make sure that the roots do not protrude above the ground.
In appearance, the Russian practically does not differ from other varieties of apricot. The bark on young shoots has a characteristic reddish-brown tint, a lot of lentils. Leaves are rounded, slightly elongated towards the top, have a finely toothed edge.
Apricot flowers are single, petals are white or pink with reddish veins. Flowers bloom before leaves appear.
The variety is characterized by large, slightly flattened yellow-orange fruits. The weight of one apricot can reach 60-65 g. The pulp of the fruit is juicy, aromatic, well separated from the stone.
The frost resistance of the Russian variety allows you to grow a crop in regions of the middle lane, including in the Moscow region, Ryazan and Samara regions.
Characteristics of the apricot variety Russian has several features. First of all, the culture is distinguished by its ability to withstand the unfavorable conditions of the region in which it grows, and also has immunity to a wide range of diseases and pests.
Drought resistance, winter hardiness
A frost-resistant apricot variety Russian is able to withstand temperatures down to minus 30-33 ° С. The resistance of the crop to dry periods is average. For the apricot to grow favorably, it must be properly watered.
Pollination, flowering period and ripening times
The variety is a self-fertile crop, but to increase yields, it is better to plant pollinators for the Russian apricot nearby. These are, first of all, other apricot varieties with similar flowering periods. The tree begins to bloom in May, and the fruits ripen in mid-July.
One of the main advantages of the Russian variety is its high yield rates. More than 70 kg of fruit can be harvested from one mature tree. At the same time, the fruits ripen very large and juicy.
The crop can be harvested starting from the 3-4th year after planting a seedling in a permanent place. And regular pruning of the tree will increase yields.
Scope of the fruit
Apricot fruits of the Russian variety have excellent taste. They are ideal both for fresh consumption and for the manufacture of various blanks.
Attention! Apricot blanks are a great way to preserve healthy and tasty fruits for the winter. The Russian variety is suitable for making preserves, jams and syrups.
Disease and pest resistance
The variety is resistant to most pests and diseases affecting stone fruits, and apricot in particular.
Advantages and disadvantages
The main advantages of the Russian variety are:
- high productivity;
- large and juicy fruits;
- resistance to frost, drought and parasites;
There are practically no disadvantages of this culture. However, the variety does not tolerate stagnant moisture in the soil.
Growing an apricot Russian in the middle lane requires compliance with a number of conditions. It is important to choose the optimal place for the seedling, as well as to determine the timing of planting.
It is best to plan the planting of apricots in mid - late April. By this time, the soil has already warmed up enough, and the root system will not be damaged by frost.
Choosing the right place
The successful cultivation of apricot The Russian also depends on the place of planting. The selected area should be sufficiently illuminated, but at the same time protected by some structure or fence from the north winds. The groundwater level is not of great importance for the Russian variety.
What crops can and cannot be planted next to an apricot
An adult tree, due to its spreading branches and powerful roots, takes up a lot of space and creates a lot of shade. Therefore, only early spring flowers, such as tulips or daffodils, can be planted next to the apricot.
Undesirable neighbors for apricot are raspberries and currants. Also, do not plant a crop in the place where other stone fruit trees previously grew.
Selection and preparation of planting material
A seedling should be purchased in proven nurseries. The planting material should not show signs of disease, the root system and shoots should be intact, without breaks, cracks and damage. No preparation of apricot seedlings is required, but if desired, the root system can be treated with mullein solution.
The main stages of planting an apricot Russian:
- In the fall, you need to dig a hole that is 70 cm deep and about 75 cm wide.
- A layer of rubble or pebbles is laid at the bottom of the pit. The function of drainage for sandy soils is performed by clay.
- The top layer of the excavated soil must be mixed with humus, compost and ash, after which a complex of mineral fertilizers must be added.
- The pit is filled up to the top with a prepared substrate, a stake is driven in, and a seedling is installed on top of the ground.
- It is necessary to fill up the root system of the apricot and form a hill by compacting the soil.
- The seedling is tied to a peg. A roller is formed around the plant, which is necessary to retain water.
When finished, pour 10-15 liters of water over the apricot.
Follow-up care of the culture
Many reviews about the Russian apricot contain information that the culture is completely unpretentious to care for, and this is really so. Water the apricot early in the morning or after sunset and make sure that no water stagnates around the tree. Since the variety tolerates drought well, then 1-2 times a week will be sufficient.
Apricot feeding is carried out according to the following scheme:
- before planting, fertilizers are applied three times with an interval of 10-14 days;
- starting from the second year of the plant's life, mineral fertilizers are applied every year in spring and autumn;
- organic fertilizers are best used no more than once every 4 years.
To increase yields, you need to prune the crown every spring. In this case, all shoots are shortened in half, and only 5-7 main skeletal branches remain. In the fall, sanitary pruning is carried out, as a result of which all damaged, broken or diseased shoots are removed.
Preparing an apricot for the coming winter consists in removing all weeds, digging up the soil and spraying with insecticidal preparations. To protect against rodents, it is recommended to cover the trunk and lower shoots with spruce branches.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
The plant is resistant to many diseases and pests, but it is necessary to periodically carry out preventive measures.
Prevention and control methods
Spraying the tree with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid until bud break
Hole in leaves
Spring treatment with "Fundazol"
Methods of control and prevention
Digging the ground in autumn, destruction of damaged parts of the tree
Insecticide treatment, removal and burning of affected fruits
Apricot Russian is considered one of the best frost-resistant crop varieties. It is distinguished by high productivity, unpretentious care, strong immunity, and most importantly - large and sweet fruits.
Barankina Valentina Ivanovna, 55 years old, Chekhov
I wanted to grow an apricot on my site, and the choice fell on the Russian variety. The tree perfectly tolerates low temperatures, does not get sick, gives a good harvest. And planting and caring for a Russian apricot is not difficult and difficult, this variety turned out to be very unpretentious, I recommend it!
Norova Lyudmila Stepanovna, 63 years old, Arzamas
I read a description of the Russian apricot variety in the magazine and decided to buy a seedling in the nursery. He successfully took root in the garden and for the second year now he pleases us with his delicious and juicy apricots. I regularly process the tree, loosen and mulch the soil. In a word, I provide proper care for the culture, so I did not have any difficulties.