The Greensboro peach is a dessert variety that has been known for over a hundred years. Its tender, large fruits are among the first to ripen in the southern regions with a hot climate, but they are capable of ripening much further north. Peaches have long ceased to be exotic in the gardens of the middle zone. Proper care allows Greensboro to endure cold winters and produce stable fruit both on the Black Sea coast and in the Moscow region.
Breeding history of the variety
The Greensboro peach was obtained in the late 19th century by free pollination from a Connet seedling. The homeland of the early ripening and frost-resistant fruit is the USA. In 1947, the variety was zoned in the North Caucasus, the peach showed itself well in the Crimea, and was widely distributed in Central Asia and the Black Sea region.
Greensboro peach variety description
A greensboro peach tree without strong shaping grows tall with a spreading crown. Annual growth is average. Shoots with short internodes, smooth, dark crimson in the light.
Peach leaves are of medium length (up to 15 cm), folded in the form of a boat in the center, with the tips bent down. The upper side of the plate is dark green, the lower side is light gray. The petiole is up to 1 cm. The edges have rounded teeth.
Fruit buds are large, ovoid, arranged in groups. The variety blooms profusely and amicably. The inflorescences of the Greensboro variety are pink-shaped. The petals are large, bright pink, rounded.
Description of Greensboro Peach Fruit:
- large size: more than 55 mm in diameter;
- oval with a flattened, depressed apex;
- the average weight of fruits ranges from 100 to 120 g;
- the pulp is fibrous, juicy, creamy with a green tint;
- the surface of the fruit is rigidly pubescent, rough;
- the skin is green with a slight burgundy blush;
- the stone is small, difficult to separate, prone to cracking.
With a medium sugar content, Greensboro fruits have a balanced sweet and sour taste and a strong peach aroma.
The variety is zoned and recommended for cultivation in the south of the country. But the correct agricultural technology allows you to get excellent harvests in the middle lane, zones with moderate winters and warm, humid summers.
The Greensboro peach, according to the description of the All-Russian Institute of Breeding, belongs to the fruits of the table purpose. An early maturing, high-yielding variety combines winter hardiness and drought tolerance, which makes it possible to significantly expand its growing areas.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
The culture can withstand winters with temperatures below -22 ° C. The Greensboro peach, even in the suburbs, according to reviews, shows excellent survival. Cases of complete recovery of the plant after freezing and death of the aboveground part (at - 35 ° C) to the level of snow cover have been recorded.
Drought resistance of the variety is relative. The tree does not die from a short-term drought, but the yield suffers, and the branches tend to become bare, which is why they do not winter well.
Does the variety need pollinators
The Greensboro variety is self-fertile, trees can be planted with the same type of planting. The yield is well influenced by the presence of other peaches in the garden for pollination.
Grafted on almonds, apricots, cherry plums, Greensboro is grown on difficult soils unsuitable for self-rooted seedlings.
Productivity and fruiting
The Greensboro peach begins to bear fruit quickly: for 2-3 years. By the age of 10, the trees are gaining full strength. The maximum recorded yield per adult peach is 67 kg.
The variety is early in maturity. In the south, Greensboro peaches ripen in July, in black earth regions - by early August.
The taste qualities of the variety are assessed by experts at 4.8 points out of 5. The content of dry matter in fruits reaches 12%, sugars - about 9%, acids - 0.4%, vitamin C - 6 mg per 100 g of pulp.
Scope of the fruit
Greensboro is not very good keeping quality. From pressure, the delicate pulp is deformed and darkens. Therefore, the variety is not intended for long-distance transportation and long-term storage. If transportation is necessary, the fruits are harvested in technical ripeness: approximately 3-4 days before full ripening. Peaches are packed in boxes, shifting with soft, hygroscopic materials.
Disease and pest resistance
Greensboro shows resistance to the main enemy of peach orchards - clasterosporia, as well as powdery mildew. In the absence of proper care and prevention, it is prone to curly leaves.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Over the centuries of cultivation, the Greensboro variety has received undoubted recognition among gardeners for such qualities:
- Early harvest.
- Frost resistance.
- Aroma and taste.
- Immunity to major diseases.
The disadvantages include:
- uneven fruit size: from 70 to 120 g per tree;
- the need for urgent use due to the rapid loss of presentation;
- limited zoning and the need for shelter for the winter in the central regions.
In the negative aspects of the Greensboro peach, according to reviews of novice gardeners, a tendency to curly leaves is sometimes indicated, but this defect can be easily corrected with appropriate care.
Peach planting rules
A seedling of a well-chosen variety suitable for the climate must be properly rooted. The further growth, development, fruiting of the Greensboro peach largely depends on this procedure. Timing plays an important role in landing.
The following planting dates are recommended for the tender, heat-loving Greensboro peach in different regions:
- In the south - in autumn (September or early October). When planted in spring, young plants suffer from heat and sunburn.
- In the middle lane - in autumn or spring, focusing on the weather. The main criterion for planting is the soil warmed up to +15 ° C.
- Closer to the north - only in spring, when the soil and air warms up to comfortable temperatures.
In regions with cold winters and lack of snow, Greensboro peaches are sheltered for the winter.
Choosing the right place
For planting a thermophilic variety, a sunny, wind-protected place is chosen, preferably without stagnant water. The southern slope is the best choice.
The Greensboro variety grows on different types of soils, it does not tolerate only acidic and saline soils. Heavy soils can be enriched with humus, mature compost with complex fertilizers. A little humus or mineral dressing is added to light soil.
Selection and preparation of planting material
It is advisable to purchase peach seedlings in special nurseries. So the purchased trees will be guaranteed to correspond to the declared varietal qualities.
Signs of a Good Greensboro Sapling:
- height - from 1 to 1.5 m;
- age - up to 2 years;
- trunk girth about 2 cm;
- smooth bark without spots and damage;
- healthy, moist roots, no signs of pests.
For spring planting, the material of the Greensboro variety is shortened to 80 cm, the side shoots are cut off by a third. At night, place the root system in a solution with a growth stimulator (for example, Kornevin). In the morning, the seedling is ready.
Autumn planting of Greensboro involves shortening the roots, it is advisable not to prune the trunk and branches until spring. On varietal brilliant greens with leaves, they are cut off before planting. Until the roots of the peach begin to function fully, the load should be reduced as much as possible.
Greensboro peach planting is prepared in advance. The pit is dug six months before the estimated date of work. A 40x40 cm depression is preliminarily prepared. The final size will depend on the root system of the seedling.
With free crown formation, there should be no less than 3 m between the plants. The peach does not tolerate thickening. The row spacings are 4 to 5 m wide. A tighter Greensboro fit is only acceptable with strong pruning and shaping.
Planting a peach step by step:
- A support (stake, pole) is installed in the center of the landing pit.
- The bottom is covered with drainage (crushed stone, sand) with a thickness of at least 10 cm.
- A mound of fertile substrate is built around the support.
- The seedling is arranged in the center of the pit so that the support shades the young plant from the daytime sun.
- Peach roots are carefully spread over a mound of earth, sprinkled with a small layer of soil and lightly squeezed.
- Water the plant with a bucket of cold water and wait for the moisture to be completely absorbed.
- At this stage, you can completely fill the hole with soil.
The neck of the scion is left 3 cm above ground level if it is intended to grow a Greensboro peach in the form of a tree. In the bush version, the grafting site is buried in the ground.
A shaft of earth is formed along the perimeter of the seat. 2 buckets of water are poured under each peach. It is advisable to mulch the soil immediately, but do not lay the moisture-saving layer close to the trunk.
Peach follow-up care
If planted in the spring, buds and leaves appear on the Greensboro peach within 30 days.
Warning! It happens that the growing season of the seedling does not start on time, there are no leaves all season, but the trunk remains flexible and the color of the bark is not changed. In such a dream, Greensboro can spend a whole year, and begin to develop rapidly next spring.
Pruning is the most important peach grooming technique. Fruiting and even successful wintering of the seedling depend on the formation of the crown and the regulation of the load. Standard techniques for pruning peaches of any variety are shown in the photo.
The Greensboro variety is distinguished by a heap of fruit buds, mainly in the lower part of the growth. The branches of such varieties are shortened more than with a single arrangement of fruits on the shoot.
The purpose of all care measures is to increase the winter hardiness of seedlings. This principle is especially important to observe when growing Greensboro peaches in the Moscow region and other central regions. Winters in the middle lane are not characterized by critical frosts, but thaws are frequent, which has a bad effect on fruit buds and annual growth.
Features of Greensboro peach care:
- When fertilizing in the summer, preference is given to potassium compounds: potassium sulfate or ash. Nitrogen fertilizing (even organic) has a bad effect on the preparation of the variety for wintering.
- The Greensboro peach bears fruit best with regular watering. With a lack of rain, the trunks should be deeply moistened every 10 days. After harvesting, it is advisable to stop watering: this will reduce the growth of branches, but will increase the plant's resistance to frost.
- It is useful to mulch the peach trunk circle with a thick layer (at least 10 cm) of organic matter, for example, weeded out weeds. This protects the roots from frost in winter and ensures constant soil moisture in the summer.
The rationing of the crop load allows the Greensboro cultivar to tolerate the cold more easily. In the spring, when pruning, it is worth removing the weakest ovaries or thinning them out if they are too abundant. Peaches overloaded with fruits delight in season, but often freeze out in winter.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
Greensboro's resistance to most peach-specific diseases allows fewer preventive chemical treatments. But one of the viruses requires special attention.
The disease is manifested by curly leaves and requires preventive spraying:
- in the fall - 3% Bordeaux liquid;
- in the spring - with a 1% solution of the same product;
- in case of infection - the drug "Topaz", diluted according to the instructions.
Horticultural crops with sweet fruits are often affected by aphids, moths, scale insects and striped moths. To combat peach pests, Karbofos, Zolon, Atellik or other specialized insecticides are used.
Advice! Affected branches are recommended to be cut and burned outside the garden.
The Greensboro peach is an exceptionally delicate and short-lived fruit. But its excellent taste, early harvest and winter hardiness of the trees make the variety popular both in the south and in the temperate zones.
Victoria Pavlovna, 37 years old, Saratov
I chose a peach for a long time - our edges are not the most southern. Stopped at Greensboro. I grow the variety not with a tree, but with a bush. This makes it easier to cover for the winter. I mulch the soil with sawdust, lay branches on them, sprinkle everything with sand. You can also use lutrasil from above so that the shelter does not collapse. I was worried about the first winter - whether the variety would freeze. Now I know how to prepare peaches for winter and there is nothing more to worry about.
Pavel Gennadievich, 56 years old, Stavropol
There is more than one Greensboro variety in my garden, peaches are different, but this one seems to me the most fragrant. Ripens one of the first, although not very sweet, but is able to please both children and grandchildren. Before planting, you should know that the best way to consume these peaches is to eat right by the tree. The variety is not suitable for transportation.