Any lemon disease is a potential threat to the life of the plant. Without timely treatment, there is a high risk of death of an ornamental tree or a deterioration in its general condition, a decrease in the volume of fruiting.
Indoor lemon diseases: causes and treatment
When growing homemade lemon, owners are faced with diseases and pests. Bacterial and viral infections that parasitize insects interfere with normal growth and fruiting.
The main reasons provoking the development of diseases is a violation of the rules for caring for a plant. Due to improper planting, watering or pruning, the lemon's immunity is reduced, which allows viruses to quickly destroy the tree.
Infection occurs through the mouth of the leaves when the lemon is damaged. As the cancer progresses, dark brown spots with a yellow rim appear on the leaf blades. Citrus cancer is gradually spreading to the fruit of the plant.
A lemon affected by the disease at home sheds its foliage, stops growing. Citrus Cancer Photos:
The shoots gradually die off, the affected fruits stop ripening and fall off.
Important! There is no cure for citrus cancer, so when symptoms appear, the tree must be destroyed to prevent the spread of the disease to other plantings.
Translated from Latin, the disease stands for "sad virus". Young trees are especially susceptible to tristeza.
The initial symptom of the disease is impaired growth and crushing of the fruit. Whitened veins on the leaf plates help determine the presence of tristeza. They gradually turn yellow and dry out. In a lemon affected by the disease, leaves shatter, convex furrows appear on the bark, and the plant dies.
There are no lemons that are resistant to tristeza. The virus is capable of being at rest for a long time and not manifesting itself externally. This increases the risk of contamination of other plantings when using lemon cuttings for grafting.
No effective treatment for tristeza has been developed; it is recommended to destroy the tree.
Affected leaf plates change their shade: dark and light spots appear on them, similar in appearance to mosaics. As the disease progresses, they turn pale, lose their shape, young shoots develop with defects, the tree grows more slowly. To distinguish the mosaic from other lemon leaf diseases, just look at the photo. It is ineffective to treat a viral disease: the plant quickly dies. Lemon is moved to quarantine, regular feeding is carried out. A completely infected tree should be destroyed.
Fungal and infectious
Fungal spores and harmful bacteria entering the plant weaken its immunity, which provokes its early death. Their timely identification and destruction allows you to save the lemon.
A favorable environment for fungi and bacteria is a small amount of light and high soil moisture, improper feeding.
The fungus affects the aerial parts of the plant: small leaf plates turn black, on the finally formed parts of the shoot, a pale green shade of spots appear, gradually changing color to light brown.
Lemon disease affects not only the leaves but also the fruit. From the photo it is possible to assess the appearance of a plant with anthracnose.
When a fungus appears during the flowering period, the buds wither and fall off. From the surviving ovaries, the fruits are formed with defects and small sizes.
Cracks form at the site of the trunk lesion, the color changes to black, gum leakage is possible on young branches.
Therapeutic measures for lemon anthracnose: the damaged parts of the tree are removed, mineral fertilizers are applied to the soil, and irrigation is controlled. To destroy the fungus, use the drug Previkur or Bordeaux liquid (1% solution).
Important! When processing a plant by any means, you must adhere to the instructions. It is not recommended to mix several drugs at the same time.
For a fungal infection, the appearance of yellow veins on the leaves is characteristic in the initial stages. Then not lignified shoots wither, the plant gradually dries up. On the diseased stem of the lemon, pycnidia of the fungus appear, almost invisible to the human eye.
The main symptom confirming the development of Malsecco is a change in the color of the core of the shoots to red.
In the early stages of the disease, it is impossible to identify malsecco, therefore, when caring for a lemon, it is recommended to adhere to the rules of agricultural technology. It is impossible to save a completely damaged tree.
A certain type of mushroom destroys lemon - it is phytophthora, which lives in the soil. When creating favorable conditions for them (high humidity), they infect the root system. The absorption of moisture and nutrients is disrupted, which affects the appearance of the lemon.
Typical signs: the leaves turn yellow and die off, the fruits are small, the bark at the trunk is damaged, gradually peels off, gum oozes along its surface. When the roots are removed, a change in their color, the presence of a peeled surface, and wateriness are noted.
For the treatment of lemon from root rot, it is recommended to transplant the plant, cut off the affected roots, treat with fungicidal agents, and ensure the presence of soil drainage.
Young shoots, unripe fruits and leaves are susceptible to wart (scab). The branches are covered with growths, spots appear on the fruits, first orange and then brown.
To destroy the fungus carried by insects and wind, use the drug Strobilin. Before treatment with the agent, the affected parts of the tree are cut off and burned. It is recommended to irrigate the cut site with a 1% solution of vitriol.
For prevention, the primary treatment with the agent is carried out in March, then in June and July. If possible, the plant is transplanted.
The main symptom of lemon disease is gum flow. Brown spots appear on the trunk, in place of which the bark gradually dies off, and yellow gum is released from the cracks formed.
The cause of gommosis is a deficiency of potassium and phosphorus in the soil, an excess of nitrogen. The provoking factors are shallow drainage and improper planting of the plant.
For the treatment of gum disease, the damaged bark of the lemon is cleaned with a sharp knife, then the wound is treated with copper sulfate (3% solution). A garden pitch is applied over it.
This type of mold is characterized by the appearance of aphids and scale insects as a result of the activity. Pests spread the pad on the leaf plates, on which the fungal spores that were previously in the ground multiply.
The fungus is characterized by the appearance on the leaves of a black plaque resembling soot. Due to the activity of bacteria, other diseases often join the sooty fungus.
To get rid of the sooty fungus, you need to get rid of the scale insects and aphids. After disinfection, the aboveground part of the lemon is washed with Neem oil.
Pests of indoor lemon and the fight against them
It is impossible to prevent the attack of harmful insects. They are prone to rapid reproduction and the desire to destroy the plant. Regular inspection of trees is important to prevent their rapid spread throughout the plantings.
A small insect, whose place of residence is the root system, damages the plant, which, due to the activity of the pest, is not able to fully receive nutrients.
When the root aphid appears, signs of lemon death appear: the fruits and ovary fall off or do not develop, the leaf plates curl.
To get rid of aphids, it is important to regularly destroy weeds that have a beneficial effect on the reproduction of the pest.
It is recommended to destroy damaged plants, or, if the disease is detected early, treat the lemon with insecticides Akarin, Fufanon or Guapsin. As a result of spraying, aphids are paralyzed, and they die.
Important! Among the folk recipes for root aphids, there are tips to disinfect the soil with alcohol. It is forbidden to carry out this procedure in relation to lemon: the tree does not tolerate alcohol.
Among the diseases and pests of home lemon, aphids are the most common occurrence. The result of its vital activity is the destruction of leaf plates. The insect damages their lower part, gradually moving upward, sucking the juices. Castings dry up and fall off.
To get rid of aphids, the affected shoots are cut off, after which a complex fertilizer is applied to the soil. In case of a massive pest attack, the lemon is irrigated with an insecticide or garlic infusion. To prepare the latter, 4 heads of garlic are poured into 5 liters of water and insisted for a day. The finished solution is sprayed onto the plant.
The pest appears on the lemon, which is grown at home, penetrating from the street. It is brought with flowers or fruits contaminated with soil.
The scale insects are very small and move quickly, so it is difficult to see them. With a massive accumulation of the parasite on the leaves, you can see the tubercles of a brown hue. As a result of the vital activity of the scale insect, yellowish spots remain on the leaves.
Among the mechanical methods of getting rid of the pest of indoor lemon, it is recommended to clean the tree of insects with a cotton pad dipped in alcohol. As a chemical treatment, drugs Aktara or Actellik are used.
This insect is an almost invisible representative among the diseases and pests of indoor lemon. The size of a tick does not exceed 2 mm, it is possible to see it through a magnifying glass.
The pest feeds on plant sap, living on the underside of the leaves. In the course of its activity, the shoots dry out. Yellow spots and cobwebs can be found on the sheet.
Common chemical treatments for spider mites include:
Among the popular methods, it is recommended to use a soap solution, which is used to wipe each leaf of lemon, then the pot and all nearby surfaces.
How to treat lemon from pests
Taking preventive measures against insects is one way to protect a lemon.
It is recommended to shower the wood with soap and water once a month. Before the procedure, the soil in the pot is covered so as not to damage the root system.
Contributes to the prevention and elimination of pests of indoor lemon mustard solution. The powder is poured with 1000 ml of water and insisted for 72 hours, after which the tree is treated. Before the procedure, the product is diluted with 3 liters of water.
Effective against pests and tobacco infusion with soap. For its preparation, 50 g of tobacco is poured with 1000 ml of boiling water and infused for 24 hours, after which it is boiled for half an hour, cooled. Add 1 liter of water and 1 tablespoon of soap shavings to the solution. The resulting product can be used for spraying or rinsing.
A set of preventive measures
The main way to prevent pests and diseases from appearing on lemon is to follow the rules of agricultural technology. The tree should be planted in well-drained soil and should be provided with sufficient light and moisture.
Regularly it is required to inspect the lemon: all damaged shoots are removed, wounds or cuts are treated with garden varnish.
Important! Bouquets of flowers or infected plants, other possible sources of infection (fruits and vegetables from the garden) should not be kept near the lemon.
Any lemon disease can lead to the death of the plant, therefore, timely tree care and preventive measures play a decisive role. Most insecticides and antiseptics have a wide range of applications, therefore they are used for the same diseases. The success of the treatment depends on the degree of damage to the lemon and the plant's resistance to the disease.