The cherry tree is the real treasure of the garden. It is very popular among summer residents. To create the perfect garden, it is important to know the propagation characteristics of the plant. As practice shows, it is not difficult to propagate cherries. There are several simple ways. With a serious approach to business, reproduction will be possible even for a beginner.
How does cherry multiply
Cherry propagation is possible by cuttings, grafting, shoots and layering. Some summer residents reproduce it with bones. Depending on the breeding method, cherries are:
- Own-rooted. They retain their variety even after the death of the mother plant due to a lack of moisture or exposure to low temperatures. This is their main advantage. However, the varietal cherries that produce tasty and large fruits are unfortunately very delicate and delicate.
- Vaccinated. In this case, the trees consist of two elements - the rootstock and the scion. The rootstock is the lower part of the cherry, the root system. As a rootstock, zoned plants, accustomed to harsh conditions, are used, which are frost-resistant and easily extract moisture from the ground. The graft is the cultural part. The yield, the size and taste of the fruits, the timing of the ripening of the crop, and the predisposition to diseases depend on it.
Cherry is one of the most popular trees among domestic gardeners
How can cherries be propagated
As you can see, there are many ways to breed cherries. There are no perfect ones among them. Each has advantages and disadvantages. To choose the appropriate breeding option, the summer resident needs to familiarize himself with a brief overview of each of the methods.
How to plant cherries
The easiest and most efficient way to reproduce is by undergrowth. It is popular with summer residents living in the northern regions, where low temperatures prevail in combination with high air humidity. It should be noted that not all measles are suitable for the procedure. It is not recommended to use for reproduction:
- Saplings showing signs of disease, mechanical damage. There is a high probability that they will not take root.
- Plants that grow closely. They will not be able to take root deep enough.
- Perennials. During reproduction, the roots can be severely injured, which will negatively affect the further development of the fruit tree and can lead to its death.
Important! For transplantation, seedlings up to two years old are ideal, which are already sufficiently developed and have strong roots, grow at a great distance from the mother plant.
Root propagation is ideal for northern regions
The very procedure for reproduction by shoots is carried out as follows:
- Select a suitable sprout.
- At a distance of 25 cm from the main trunk, using a shovel, the root is cut, which connects the mother plant and the sprout.
- After separation, the sprout is left for the summer so that it grows stronger and forms a powerful root system. Throughout the season, weeds are removed near the sprout and the soil is loosened. For best results, fertilizers are applied to the soil.
- In the fall, the sprout is dug up and transplanted to a new place. This completes the breeding procedure.
How to propagate cherries by layering
Reproduction of cherries by air layers is not the best option, but some summer residents resort to it. They use a shoot above the graft area and end up with a self-rooted plant of the same variety.
Cherry propagation by layering is performed as follows:
- In the spring, a lower branch (preferably a thin, unbranched) is selected from a young plant (3-5 years old), leaned against the ground and pinned.
- Make sure that thin, unbranched shoots are horizontal.
- The place of pinning is sprinkled with soil and watered.
The formation of a full-fledged root system takes a year. After this period, the layering is separated from the mother plant and transplanted to a new place.
In addition, another method is known for propagating cherries by layering. The procedure is performed as follows:
- In a dormant cherry, the entire aerial part is removed.
- When the plant begins to release shoots, they are sprinkled with soil. Such hilling is performed several times until the layer of earth grows to 20 cm. Roots eventually grow on the part of the shoot that is hidden under the ground.
- After a year, the layers are separated from the mother plant and transplanted.
Reproduction by layering allows you to get a plant of its own rooted type
How to propagate cherries by cuttings
If there is no overgrowth, you can propagate cherries by cuttings. This is one of the simplest ways. It is a variant of vegetative propagation. Shoots are prepared in June. Preference is given to branches that have begun to grow stiff and acquire a reddish tint at the base. If suitable elements are found, they are cut from the mother tree. The procedure is carried out in cool weather in the morning or evening.
Felt cherry propagation is carried out using pre-prepared twigs approximately 30 cm long.
After cutting, the cuttings are placed in water. In order for reproduction to be successful, a little simulator is added to the liquid to activate root growth (the dosage is indicated in the instructions). Most often, summer residents use heteroauxin.
Cuttings are tied in 30 pieces and placed in liquid for 18 hours. At the same time, pay attention to the fact that each branch intended for propagation is immersed by 15 mm.
While the cuttings are in the water, the beds are being prepared. They are filled with a 10 cm layer of soil mixture, which includes sand and peat. Coarse graded sand is poured on top and leveling is performed. Before planting cuttings, the beds are watered and superphosphate is added to them.
Important! If the cuttings were in plain water, then planting is carried out in the evening, and if in a stimulator - in the morning. During the day, the procedure is not carried out.
If the reproduction was carried out correctly, then after half a month the cuttings will take root. Green cuttings are not carried out later, as overgrown branches do not root well.
Propagation by cuttings is often practiced in nurseries.
How to propagate cherries with seeds
You can propagate old cherries with seeds. Ripe berries are suitable for this. The seeds are separated from the pulp, rinsed in water and dried. They are planted in the ground at the end of the first month of autumn. Therefore, in order for the bones to survive until the right time, they are buried in damp sand and placed in a cool room. The garden bed is prepared in advance. The process consists of removing weeds, loosening the soil and applying fertilizers. Then proceed directly to sowing. Cherry pits are placed in the soil to a depth of 4 cm. Sprinkle on top with a layer of peat 5 cm.
Also, the seeds can be planted in the spring. However, in this case, a 200-day stratification is required. To do this, the bones are placed in sand, moistened and placed in a cellar (the temperature in it should be + 5 ° C). If there is no cellar, dig a trench 70 cm deep. Cherry pits are placed on the bottom, and peat is poured on top.
Whether the bones are ready for planting can be determined by the seam divergence. Cherry is propagated by seed in early spring. They are placed to a depth of 6 cm. An interval of 7 cm is maintained between the bones, and a gap of 35 cm between the rows. The plantings are covered with humus. Subsequent care involves moistening and loosening the soil, removing grass.
During the growth of cherries, lateral branches from the lower shoots are cut off. This is necessary so that in the future it is convenient to carry out budding.
In the fall, the seedlings are dug up. Do this carefully so as not to damage the roots. A few days before the procedure, leaves are removed from the seedlings.
Based on the diameter of the root collar, seedlings are divided into 3 types:
- Type 1 - 7-9 mm;
- Type 2 - 5-7 mm;
- Type 3 (marriage, not suitable for reproduction) - up to 5 mm.
The roots of the seedlings are cut, leaving 12 cm. To keep them until spring, they are buried in a trench (set slightly at an angle). After the end of winter and the onset of warmth, they are planted in a permanent place. It is worth noting that it is not easy to propagate cherries using this method, since the seeds do not always germinate. In addition, a tree propagated in this way grows more slowly than one that was propagated by layering. Varietal species with such reproduction do not always transmit their positive qualities to the offspring.
Pitted cherries often lack the qualities of the mother plant
How to propagate cherries by grafting
Reproduction of cherries by grafting is a simple and effective way. For the process to be successful, use wild seedlings or seedlings grown independently from seeds, 2 years old. It is on them that the best varieties of cherries are grafted, which have the characteristics desired for the summer resident. Shoots for grafting are cut at the beginning of winter or in spring (important when breeding cherries in the southern regions).
Important! Grafting is carried out before the start of active sap flow. The best time for this is mid-March.
For grafting, shoots with a trunk diameter of 0.5 cm or more are selected. They are cut from mother trees and submerged in water for several hours. After the shoot is saturated with moisture, the required number of cuttings is cut from it (while making sure that each has at least 4 buds).
To prevent drying, the shoots are treated with a paraffin-wax mixture. If this stage was skipped, the grafted part is covered with a plastic bag until the shoots from the buds begin to germinate.
Grafting is a way to get the most resistant plant to local conditions, which will produce a tasty harvest.
Care of seedlings after breeding
In order for the reproduction of cherries to end successfully, the seedlings must be properly looked after. Freshly planted cherry cuttings are watered regularly. The earth must not be allowed to dry out. However, it must be remembered that excess moisture is also harmful. When the seedlings begin to take root, the frequency of watering is reduced and the polyethylene is removed. Do it gradually. First, the propagated cherries are accustomed to the open air for several hours, gradually reaching a full day. Then the seedlings are left completely open.
As the propagated cherry grows, the frequency of watering is adjusted to 1 time in 10 days. Young, grown cherries are watered during the period of bud swelling, during flowering, after partial fall of fruits and after the end of fruiting. After watering, the ground must be loosened. Cherry reacts well to feeding. They can be complex and organic. They are selected based on the type of soil.
Cherries also love liming. After breeding, the procedure is carried out approximately every 6 years. Before using lime, be sure to calculate the acidity of the earth. To prevent young shoots from disappearing, they carry out preventive treatment for diseases. Before flowering, chemicals are used, and then folk remedies. Traps are set to protect the propagated cherries from insects.
Care of young plants should be special.
Experienced gardening tips
When breeding cherries, experienced gardeners do the following:
- 15 days before grafting, the cut location is determined on the selected shoot. The base of the future cutting is wrapped with black tape 4 cm wide. The area isolated from the sun becomes discolored, and the cells degenerate in it. Further, the protection is removed from the cut off shoot and planted as usual. This increases the chance of rooting and successful reproduction by 30%.
- Green cuttings for propagation are cut from young trees, as the rooting power decreases over the years.
- In order to avoid burns of foliage on green cuttings when applying dressings after the procedure, they are watered with clean water.
- The cut is performed with a sharp knife, keeping the shoot suspended.
- The planting sites of root cuttings are marked with pegs.
It is possible to propagate cherries on your own. This does not require special skills. It is enough to follow simple rules and recommendations. Of course, reproduction takes a lot of time, but the result is worth it. As a result, the patient gardener will receive a tree that will fully meet his expectations.