On a hot summer day, the water in a small summer cottage pool is heated naturally. In cloudy weather, the heating time increases or, in general, the temperature does not reach a comfortable indicator of +22aboutC. In large pools, natural warming takes even longer. To solve this problem, a pool heater has been created that operates from different sources of energy.
The simplest pool water heater is a heat exchanger. The design is based on a tank through which a hot liquid flows. The connection is made to the heating system or any instantaneous water heater. A coil is built inside the tank. This part is a heat exchanger. Water from the pool circulates through the coil, warming up from the hot liquid inside the tank.
Why do you need such a complex heating of the pool, if the water can simply be driven directly through the heater? You can use this scheme, but there are two problems:
- The pool water contains small particles of chlorine and other impurities. When heated on the walls of the heat exchanger, they settle as a solid residue, clogging it.
- The water in the pool is oversaturated with oxygen, which oxidizes the metal walls of the heat exchanger.
So that an expensive boiler or flow heater does not fail, a second circuit is equipped in the heating system. The heat exchanger is easier and cheaper to change if it clogs or leaks from wall oxidation.
A homemade heat exchanger is a coil of pipes connected to a heating system. In a small children's pool, the pipeline is laid according to the principle of the "warm floor" system. The coil will warm up quickly with a small amount of water, but it will not cope with a large volume.
The second most popular is an electric heater for the pool, consisting of a body, heating elements and a thermostat. Devices are of two types:
- Accumulative. The device consists of a large tank, where water is heated by heating elements, and from there it is supplied to the pool.
- Flowing. The device is connected to the pool water treatment system. There is a filter in front of the water heater that allows purified water to pass through, which eliminates the formation of solid deposits.
Depending on the power, the devices are connected to a single-phase and three-phase network. The calculation takes into account the following parameters:
- 1 m3 outdoor pool water - 1 kW of heating element power;
- 1 m3 indoor pool water - 0.5 kW of heating element power.
The need to heat large amounts of water requires the use of powerful appliances. The electricity costs are huge, plus a separate wiring line is required.
A rather complex heater for a pool, a heat pump belongs to innovative technologies. The device is efficient and economical, but it is rarely used due to its high cost.
Important! The heat pump works on the principle of a refrigerator, only here a circuit is in demand that emits heat, not cold.
The system consists of two circuits, within which the liquid circulates. The external pipeline is laid underground, at the bottom of a reservoir or other place from which heat can be extracted. The inner contour is located inside the pool. It gives off the heat extracted by the external pipe to the water.
The system works according to the following principle:
- circulating liquid through an external pipeline takes heat from the bowels;
- the pump drives the coolant inside the evaporator, where the refrigerant is in a separate chamber;
- from the heat, the gas quickly boils, turning into steam;
- The vaporous refrigerant enters the compressor, where, when compressed, it releases a lot of thermal energy, which heats the coolant in the internal circuit.
The cycle repeats as long as the circulation pumps and compressor are running.
The disadvantage of a heat pump is the high cost of purchasing and installing equipment. However, the system can be equipped not only with heating for the pool, but also used as home heating. A big plus is the free energy resource. Further costs will be only for the electricity required for the operation of the circulation pumps and the compressor.
A small amount of water in the open air will naturally warm up. This happens for a long time and only in clear weather. In order to heat water in a large pool, solar energy must be concentrated. The solar system collects the rays of the sun with screens, converts them into thermal energy, from which the coolant circulating through the pipes is heated.
Important! One module is capable of generating energy for heating a maximum of 30 m3 of water.
The solar system is expensive to install, but similarly beneficial due to the use of free energy from the sun. In addition to pool heating, home heating can be connected to the system. Sensors and valves are used as automation with a solar system. When the water in the pool warms up to the set temperature, the coolant is directed to another circuit past the heat exchanger. After cooling down, the valve is triggered. The heat carrier flows through the heat exchanger, and the water heating in the pool is resumed.
A powerful solar system is able to quickly warm up the water, but subject to the presence of the sun. In cloudy weather, the efficiency is greatly reduced, which is the main disadvantage. For cold regions with a minimum number of sunny days, the solar system is unprofitable.
The video shows an example of heating water with solar energy:
Wood and gas heaters
When the question arises of how to heat pool water in traditional cheaper ways, wood and gas heaters come to the rescue. The principle of operation of both devices is the same. Only some structural elements differ, which depends on the type of energy carrier.
A wood-fired water heater for swimming pools is considered simple and safe to use. The device consists of a housing with a firebox with a heat exchanger inside. You can burn anything that burns. The thermal energy of the fire heats the heat carrier circulating through the heat exchanger. Hot water enters the pool, and cold water returns to heating.
Wood heaters are convenient in suburban areas where there is no gas main. Even in the event of a power outage, the circulation pump can be started from a gasoline generator. The power of the device depends on the size of the heat exchanger, and the rate of heating the water depends on the fuel used. There are models with automatic controls that regulate the intensity of combustion by closing the dampers.
The advantage of wood-fired pool water heaters is ease of installation, low cost of equipment and fuel. The downside is smoke that interferes with rest. Solid fuel must be constantly thrown into the firebox. The automation only slightly adjusts the combustion. It will not be possible to set the heating temperature precisely.
Gas-fired appliances are distinguished by the presence of a burner in the furnace. The work is fully automated, and the presence of a thermostat allows you to more accurately set the temperature of water heating. The disadvantage of the device is the complexity of installation, the need for permits for connecting to the mains, the high cost of energy.
The simplest pool heater that does not require wood, gas or electricity is called a heating blanket. The mysterious name hides an ordinary awning or blinds cover. It can be bundled or purchased separately. A cover is needed to prevent debris from entering the inside of the pool. Additionally, solar energy is accumulated on the surface of the awning, which heats the water by a couple of degrees.
A heating blanket is used on small pools, usually of a collapsible or inflatable type. In cool, cloudy weather, the awning is of no use.
Features of the choice of the device
When choosing a water heater for a pool, it is important to consider a number of important parameters:
- The first step is to take into account the power of the device. It depends on the parameter whether the heater can handle the volume of water. In terms of power, the device can be taken with a margin. The rate of water heating will increase, but at the same time the energy consumption will increase. When buying a water heater, you need to know the volume of your pool and compare it with the recommended parameters in the instructions for the device.
- According to the heating method, it is better to give preference to flow-through models. Storage tanks take up a lot of space, plus you have to heat a full tank, even if you don't need so much hot water. Flow models are lightweight, compact, and quickly heat up. Water is supplied through a filter directly from a water supply system or a well.
- It is important to choose the right unit for the energy source used. You will have to heat a lot of water. The energy source must be cheap and affordable. The operation of the device on gas or from modules for collecting solar energy will not cause trouble for the owner, but initially you will have to pay a large sum for the purchase of equipment. You will have to tinker with firewood, but the savings are obvious.
For summer cottage use, the only profitable option is to heat the pool with a device that burns solid fuel. In extreme cases, they prefer electric models.
Swimming pool heating is easy to organize with your own hands. Craftsmen come up with homemade products like store units, however, their appearance is unpresentable.