The Budyonnovskaya horse is the only exception in the world of equestrian breeds: it is the only one still closely associated with the Donskoy, and with the disappearance of the latter, it will also soon cease to exist.
As a result of the global reorganization of society that befell the Russian Empire at the beginning of the 20th century and armed disputes over this among different strata of society, the thoroughbred horse population in Russia was almost completely exterminated. Of the not very numerous breeds, which were used for the most part for an officer's saddle, only a few dozen remained. It was with difficulty that two stallions were found from the Arabized Sagittarius breed. Orlovo-Rostopchin horses remained a few dozen. It was no longer possible to restore these rocks.
Almost nothing remained of the more massive breeds that were used to complete the shelves. All horse breeding in Russia had to be restored anew. The fate of the almost completely knocked out breed befell the well-known Don horse in those years. There are less than 1000 heads of the breed. Moreover, it was one of the best-preserved cavalry horses.
Since at that time there was a belief that there was no breed better than the English racehorse, the Donskoy began to actively infuse the blood of this breed during restoration. At the same time, high-quality horses were also required for the command staff. It was believed that the influx of Thoroughbred horsemen would raise the quality of the Don horse to the level of factory cultivated breeds.
The reality turned out to be harsh. You cannot raise a factory horse with year-round keeping in the steppe on grazing. Only aboriginal breeds can live like this. And the "party line" has changed to the exact opposite. The Don horse was no longer crossed with the English horse, and the horses with a blood percentage of the English race horse above 25% were removed from the breeding stock of the Don breed and collected at two stud farms for the production of "command" horses. It was from this moment that the history of the Budennovskaya breed began.
After the division of the revived Don breed into "purebred" and "crossbred" Anglo-Don horses were transferred to two newly organized stud farms: them. CM. Budenny (colloquially "Budennovsky") and them. First Cavalry Army (also reduced to "First Cavalry").
But not all pedigrees of modern horses of the Budennovsk breed can be traced to Kokas, Sympathetic and Inferno. Later, Anglo-Don crosses from other stallions were also recorded in the Budennovskaya breed.
The Great Patriotic War stopped work on the breed. The factories were evacuated beyond the Volga and not all horses after the war were able to return back.
After returning to their homeland, the factories took slightly different paths to improve the breed. At Budennovsky, the headquarters of G.A. Lebedev introduced the Thoroughbred stallion Rubilnik into the production line, whose line is still dominant in the breed. Although the Switch was "unstable" in its offspring, but through competent and painstaking selection, this deficiency was eliminated, leaving the dignity of the founder of the line.
Photo of the founder of the line in the Budennovskaya breed of horses of the thoroughbred stallion Rubilnik.
In the plant of the First Horse Chief V.I. Muravyov staked on the selection of not colts, but filly in the cultural groups. The plant took Muravyov significantly inferior to Budennovsky, left with the strongest masterbatch, selected not only for the exterior and origin, but also for working qualities.
In the 60s of the last century, Budennovsk horses reached a new level. The need for cavalry had already disappeared, but equestrianism was still "militarized". The requirements for horses in equestrian sports were very similar to those that were previously imposed on cavalry horses. At the pinnacle of equestrian sports were Thoroughbred riding horses and horses with a high bloodline by PCI. One of these high-blooded breeds turned out to be Budennovskaya.
In the USSR, almost all breeds were tested in smooth races. Budennovskaya was no exception. Race trials developed speed and endurance in horses, but selection in this case followed the path of reinforcing flat movements and a low neck release.
The performance characteristics of the Budennovsk horse breed allowed them to achieve success in Olympic sports:
- show jumping;
- high school of riding.
Budennov horses were in special demand in triathlon.
The "transition to new economic tracks" and the ensuing devastation in the economy crippled the horse breeding of the country and hit especially hard on the small Soviet breeds: Budennovskaya and Terskaya. The Terskiy had much worse, today it is practically a non-existent breed. But Budennovskaya is not much easier.
In the 90s, the best representatives of the Budennovskaya breed were sold abroad at a price much lower than horses of the same quality in Europe. The purchased horses also reached the level of the Olympic teams in Western countries.
In the photo, a member of the US Olympic Team Nona Garson. Under the saddle she has a horse from the Budennovsky stud farm named Rhythmic. Father of Rhythmic Flight.
It came to anecdotes when people went to the Netherlands for an expensive European horse. They bought a horse there for a lot of money and brought it to Russia. Of course, they boasted about the acquisition to people who were experienced in equestrian business. Experienced people found the stamp of the First Horse Factory on the horse.
After 2000, the requirements for horses have changed a lot. The flat movement of a cavalry horse for long journeys has ceased to be appreciated in dressage. There it became necessary to "move uphill", that is, the vector during movement should create the feeling that the horse is not just walking forward, but slightly lifts the rider at every pace. Horses of Dutch breeding with altered proportions of limbs and a high neck yield have become in demand in dressage.
Jumping began to require not so much speed as accuracy and agility. In triathlon, the main trump card of high-speed breeds was removed, where they could win points: long sections without obstacles, on which it was only necessary to ride at maximum speed.
To remain on the lists of Olympic sports, equestrian sports had to put entertainment at the forefront. And all the wonderful qualities of a war horse suddenly turned out to be useless to anyone. In dressage, Budennovsk horses are no longer in demand due to the flat movements. In show jumping, they are able to compete with European breeds at the highest level, but for some reason strictly abroad.
One of Reis's descendants in Germany is licensed to breed and used on Westphalian, Holstein and Hanoverian mares. But in the WBFSH rating, one cannot find the nickname Raut from Reis and Axiom. There he is listed as Bison's Golden Joy J.
Considering that without the Donskoy breed there will be no Budennovskaya, and the Donskoy already now do not know where to apply, these two breeds are threatened with complete extinction without changing the direction of selection.
Modern Budennovites have a pronounced exterior of a riding horse. They have a light and dry head with a straight profile and a long nape. The ganache should be wide and “empty so as not to obstruct breathing. The neck exit is high. Ideally, the shaya should be long, but this is not always possible. The withers of the "characteristic" type, more similar to the Thoroughbred breed than others, are long, well developed. The Budyonnovskys have a long oblique scapula. The chest region should be long and deep. Ribs can be flat. The chest is wide. The back is strong and straight. A soft back is a disadvantage, and individuals with such a back are not allowed for breeding. The loin is straight, short, well muscled. The croup is long with a normal slope and well-developed femoral muscles. The lower legs and forearms are well muscled. The wrist and hock joints are large and well developed. Good girth on the metacarpus. Tendons well defined, dry, well developed. A proper tilt angle of the headstocks. The hooves are small and strong.
The growth of modern Budyonnovsk horses is large. The growth of the queens ranges from 160 to 178 cm at the withers. Many stallions can be over 170 cm in height. Since horses do not have strict growth criteria, both small and very large specimens can come across.
Like Donskoy, Budennovsky horses are divided into intra-breed types, and the description of a specific type of Budennovsky horse breed can differ greatly from the general exterior.
Types can mix, resulting in "subtypes". There are three main types: oriental, massive and characteristic. In Budennovsky horse breeding, it is customary to designate types by the first letters: B, M, X. With a pronounced type, they put a capital letter, with a weakly expressed type, a capital letter: в, m, x. With a mixed type, the designation of the most pronounced type is put in the first place. For example, an oriental horse that has some characteristic traits would be designated Bx.
The characteristic type is the most suitable for use in sports disciplines. It optimally combines the qualities of the Donskoy and Thoroughbred riding breeds:
- good leverage;
- developed muscles;
- large growth;
- high efficiency.
Budennovsky stallion Ranzhir of a characteristic type.
In the eastern type, the influence of the Don breed is very strongly felt. These are horses with smooth lines with rounded shapes. In the presence of the suit of the Budennovtsy of this type, typical for the Don horses, it is almost impossible to distinguish from the "relatives".
Budennovsky stallion Duelist of the eastern type.
Horses of the massive type are distinguished by their coarse forms, large stature, deep and round chest.
Budennovsky stallion The instigator of a characteristic oriental type.
The Budyonnovskaya horse inherited from the Donskoy a characteristic red color, often with a golden tint. But since Budennovets is an "Anglo-Donchak", in the Budennovsk breed there are all the colors characteristic of the ChKV, except for piebald and gray. Piebald in the USSR was culled according to tradition, and gray English racehorses were not bred. It is not known why. Perhaps, in due time, gray Thoroughbred horses simply did not get into the Russian Empire.
Even if all the documents are in order, but the father of the gray suit is not indicated in the breeding certificate, the horse is not Budennovets.
Although in dressage today the Budennov horses really cannot compete with half-blooded European breeds, with competent work they are able to take prizes in show jumping competitions at a fairly high level. But it should be borne in mind that horses are not machines from the assembly line and usually there are at least 10 mediocre per 1 talented one. And this law of nature has not yet been able to get around anywhere, including Western countries.
The lower photos show why the Budyonnovsk horse is not desirable to use in dressage and it is better to find its use in show jumping.
At the same time, even in dressage, the Budennovskaya horse can be a good teacher for a beginner. If a horse is needed for walking through forests and fields, then Budennovets and Donchak are the best choice. In the conditions of field walks, the main conditions are a good sense of balance and fearlessness. Both breeds have these qualities to the full.
Roman Korovainy, p. Novoivanovskoe
Our area is such that only the Budennovskys and the Donskys run around all the villages. As a last resort, they are a cross. In addition to large factories, before, almost every collective and state farm had a pedigree farm. As the collapse began, the collective farms began to get rid of the horses. Often the wages were given out by horses. So they bred the horses in private hands. I read that they are considered evil, and they are horses like horses. I bought myself a Budennovist. I was looking for a medium-sized one, so that it was convenient to harness the cart. He walked in a yoke, as he was born there. And it pulls well. Enough for the household.
Tatiana Lozinskaya, pos. Yuzhny
When we decided to organize horseback riding for tourists, we collected Budennovsky horses from the farm nearby. They chose, of course, who is quieter. To plant newcomers. Horses are good because they are not afraid of cars or animals. And there is no risk that they will fall somewhere on the descent.
From domestic breeds, the Budennovskaya horse today is the best choice for show jumping. It is also suitable for keeping as a companion. This is one of the few cultivated breeds that can live in a normal village environment.