Today there are more than four thousand varieties of potatoes. All of them differ in the color of the peel, the size of the root crop, the ripening time and taste. When choosing potatoes for your site, you need to be guided by another quality of the vegetable - its keeping quality. After all, the potatoes must lie until spring in order to "feed" the summer resident and his family until the new harvest.
Potatoes are usually stored in basements and cellars. And we will talk about which varieties of potatoes are most suitable for storage in this article.
Potatoes potatoes strife
The main feature of potato tubers is considered to be the content of dry matter, or rather starch. The more starch is in the tuber, the faster the potatoes will boil during cooking (when boiling or frying). Based on this, foreign potato manufacturing companies mark their products with Latin letters from A to D.
- potatoes with the letter A near the name of the variety are most suitable for salads and soups;
- for chips, a slightly digestible variety is ideal, which is marked with the letter B;
- well-boiled potatoes are suitable for frying and deep-frying - this is the letter C;
- for casseroles and mashed potatoes, you must buy potatoes with the letter D in the name.
Today, most domestic producers of seed and potatoes for human consumption also label their products according to this classification.
If the potato variety is older, the starch content can be indicated as a percentage. You need to focus on the fact that potatoes are used for frying with an approximate share of starch at the level of 15%, and for mashed potatoes, you need to take a variety with at least 25% of dry matter in the tuber.
Based on the foregoing, we can conclude that every gardener will have to plant several varieties of potatoes at once, because there is no universal root vegetable suitable for mashed potatoes and salads.
In addition, there are potatoes with red or white skin. In principle, the color of the tuber does not affect either the keeping quality of root crops or their taste, therefore this factor is not fundamental in choosing a variety.
Ripening dates of root crops
But the timing of the ripening of potato tubers plays a major role in choosing a variety for storage. It is believed that potatoes with medium to late ripening will last the longest, while early maturing root crops will lie in the basement until November at the most.
For storage, you need to choose potatoes that will reach technical ripeness on the 100-130th day after planting in the ground. Such root crops of potatoes ripen better, have a thicker peel, better tolerate diseases and viruses, and contain a greater amount of tannins.
What potatoes can lie all winter
When determining the variety of potatoes for storage, it is better to play it safe and buy 2-3 types of root crops at once, especially if the gardener has not had to deal with these varieties before.
It is not known how potatoes will behave in specific conditions, because several factors are important at once for keeping quality of root crops:
- The type of soil the potatoes will grow on. It is known that the best, delicious and ripe root crops can only be harvested from sandy soil. While peat garden plots are unsuitable for growing this vegetable. Potatoes grown on peat will be tasteless, and they will not be able to lie until spring. You can distinguish such root vegetables by the black dust on the peel. Loamy and chernozem soils are well suited for growing potatoes, but in the latter there is a high probability of infection of root crops, since all microorganisms and viruses multiply very quickly in chernozem.
- Weather conditions also affect the quality of potato root crops and their ability to store for a long time. It is believed that too heavy rainfall affects not only the taste of the fruit (in this case the potatoes will grow "watery"), high humidity will lead to premature spoilage of the crop. Potatoes harvested from wet soil will definitely not be stored for a long time - such root crops will begin to rot and deteriorate very quickly.
- Pests and diseases significantly reduce the ability of the potato crop for winter storage, because damaged potatoes can lie much less intact. Therefore, before storing the crop, it is imperative to sort, remove damaged potatoes and those that were nearby (they could also become infected).
- In order to prevent late blight infection, it is necessary to maintain normal humidity, not to thicken the plantings too much, and regularly treat the bushes with fungicidal preparations. Phytophthora on root crops is quite difficult to determine - outwardly it does not manifest itself in any way. But, if the cut potato has black spots inside, it will not be stored, and it is impossible to eat it.
- Excessive enthusiasm for the gardener with nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides also affects the keeping quality of the potato crop. Such a potato has a too tender skin and a watery core, and for storage you need firm potatoes with a hard center.
- Harvested too early is also unsuitable for winter storage. Such root crops have not yet had time to acquire a thick skin, their skin is too tender and flaky. During storage, the potatoes will become lethargic and soft, and begin to rot.
- The greenish peel of the potato indicates that the fruits were too close to the surface of the ground or "looked out" out, as a result, the potatoes received sunburn. It is impossible to store and eat such root crops, because they contain poisonous substances - alkaloids.
To summarize, we can say that potatoes are needed for winter storage:
- with late ripening;
- grown on good crumbly soil;
- fully ripe;
- dry and clean;
- healthy, and no signs of damage.
If the last four factors depend on cultivation methods, weather conditions and timely harvesting, then the choice of a variety is completely in the hands of the gardener himself.
Advice! Before sending potatoes for storage, they must be carefully sorted out and sorted.
Late varieties of potatoes
Late-ripening potatoes will last much better and longer than other varieties. In addition, such root crops are more saturated with useful microelements than others. For winter storage, it is better to choose two or three varieties of potatoes at once, in order to find out which of them still lasts until spring with the least "losses" and continue its cultivation next season.
A late-ripening potato variety of Dutch selection - root crops ripen by the 130th day after sowing. The bushes of this plant are medium-sized, not very spreading, flowering is white. The roots themselves are oval, smooth and uniform. The peel is beige, the eyes are tinged with a pinkish tint, and are flush with the peel. In the context of a cream-colored potato.
In each bush, about twenty root crops ripen, the average weight of which is 100 grams. The starch content is low, this potato is most suitable for making soups and frying, it does not boil well. Good taste, aromatic tubers.
The variety is perfect for the climatic features of the Moscow region and the southern regions of the country. Tubers are well stored for a long time, plants perfectly tolerate periods of drought and extreme heat, rarely get sick.
It is recommended to plant root crops at a sufficiently large distance from each other, otherwise the potatoes can "crawl out" to the surface and deteriorate due to excessive crowding. Another feature of the variety is susceptibility to late blight infection; planting must be protected from excessive moisture.
Advice! The Dutch variety of potatoes "Picasso" is most suitable for growing for commercial purposes: the potatoes are even, of the same size, and have an excellent presentation.
To obtain a bountiful harvest, it is recommended to grow these potatoes in an intensive way - using organic and nitrogen additives. For storage purposes, there is no need to fertilize the bushes.
A Belarusian potato variety that ripens quite late - after 130 days of growing season. Bushes of medium height, slightly spreading, bloom with bright purple inflorescences.
Root crops are round in shape, differ in that they have different sizes - in each bush there can be up to 18 potatoes of different weights (from 100 grams or more). The color of the peel is red, the eyes do not protrude above the surface, they are flush with the peel. In the context of a yellow root crop.
The starch content is quite high, this potato is suitable for mashed potatoes, and for potato pancakes, and for chips. The potatoes taste very good, they have a special potato flavor.
A distinctive feature of the variety is unpretentiousness. This potato, even with the minimum participation of a gardener or summer resident, will give a good harvest. The plant is resistant to most potato diseases, including scab and late blight. This allows for minimal processing of the bushes, they will have to be protected only from pests.
Before planting tubers in the ground, they need to be warmed up for several weeks. For this, the potatoes intended for planting are taken out of the basement and placed in a warmer place.
"Zhuravinka" is stored well, during the winter the roots do not get sick and do not rot.
This variety is considered medium late. Plants are tall, erect bush, potatoes bloom with red-purple inflorescences.
Root crops are oval, elongated. The peel is colored red, in the context of the tuber is yellow.
The starch content is average (at the level of 16%), which makes it possible to use Asterix potatoes for frying and deep-fried cooking, as well as for the production of chips. Taste characteristics are good. The average weight of root crops is about 100 grams. Potatoes are resistant to mechanical damage, can not only be stored for a long time, but also transported over long distances.
The variety is highly resistant to viruses and diseases - bushes and root crops are extremely rare. Commodity quality is on top.
The variety is named after the blue-blue inflorescences with which the bushes bloom. Plants of medium height, spreading. Potatoes ripen in medium terms - 100 days after planting.
Potatoes are round in shape, painted white: both outside and inside. Root crops are large enough - the average weight of each is about 150 grams, which determines the high yield of the variety (up to 500 centners per hectare of land).
The tubers are well boiled and taste great. The potatoes are suitable for mashed potatoes and casseroles, as well as for frying. At the same time, the variety has good commercial qualities, increased resistance to viruses and pathogens.
Mid-late growing periods, vigorous, branched bushes with pale green leaves and red-violet inflorescences are the characteristics of the Lorkh potato.
Root crops can be found both round and oval. The peel is colored beige, the flesh is almost white.
Potatoes weigh from 100 to 120 grams. The variety is distinguished by its high yield and good keeping quality. The starch content is high, which means that the potatoes will boil well.
This variety is not afraid of late blight and viral diseases, however, scab and cancer should be feared.
Belarusian potato variety, characterized by mid-late ripening. Root crops have a rounded shape, colored in a brownish tint. The starch content is quite high - from 16 to 20%, which makes it possible to use the crop for frying and mashed potatoes.
The flesh of potatoes does not darken in the air, it can be used to make potato pancakes, and on an industrial scale it can be processed to obtain starch. The taste of the tubers is quite high.
The variety is perfectly protected from viral and bacterial diseases. However, it does not tolerate too wide plantings and waterlogged soil.
Round potatoes of a light pink hue, with creamy flesh and weak eyes. This potato contains a lot of starch - up to 20%, ideal for mashed potatoes.
The variety is very unpretentious to the composition and type of soil, tolerates drought and abundant moisture well, and is protected from most diseases and viruses. Another feature of tubers is that they tolerate winter perfectly. Before planting, potatoes need to be germinated.
Potato storage tips
In order not to lose a good harvest during storage, you need to follow simple rules:
- It is necessary to store potatoes at a temperature of +2 degrees, the air humidity should be at the level of 80-90%. The basement is considered the ideal place for storing potatoes.
- Potatoes are stored in wooden boxes with ventilation holes, placed on pallets and moved 10-15 cm away from the walls. This will prevent root crops from getting wet and freezing.
- Once or twice during the winter, the crop is sorted out, removing rotten specimens and potatoes that have sprouted.
- If the potato crop is stored on the balcony, it should be covered with warm rags or blankets to prevent freezing and sun exposure.
- After harvesting, the crop is not immediately lowered into the cellar; the potatoes must be ventilated for two to three weeks.
- Potatoes cannot be stored with other vegetables and fruits; only beets are suitable as a "neighbor" for this crop (it absorbs excess moisture from the air).
Advice! To prevent potatoes from “growing” during storage, it is recommended to put two or three fresh apples in each box.
To provide himself and his family with potatoes for the whole winter, the gardener needs to choose a potato variety suitable for storage, as well as observe the simple storage conditions for root crops.