Parks and squares of southern cities are decorated with hedges made of climbing plants. This is a large-flowered campsis - a type of woody deciduous vines of the begonia family. High decorative properties and unpretentiousness made Kampsis an indispensable assistant for landscape designers who use the plant to revive landscapes.
Large-flowered campsis is often used to decorate arches, verandas in southern parks and squares
Description of large-flowered kampsis
Large-flowered campsis is a perennial climbing plant with a flexible, woody trunk. He belongs to the aggressors whose growth should be organized and directed. Otherwise, kampsis actively grows, filling the free space, hindering the development of trees and bushes close to it.
Campsis has two natural species. Large-flowered campsis (growing area - China and Japan) is very decorative, thanks to its large and beautiful flowers. A rooting campsis (natural area - North America) is tenacious and frost-hardy, which made it possible to breed it in regions with a more severe climate.
The flowering period of large-flowered campis is long: the first buds are shown in the second half of June. Flowering lasts all summer, until mid-September. The flowers are much larger than those of rooting campsis (they are up to 8 cm in diameter), collected in paniculate inflorescences (7-9 flowers in each).
The trunk of the plant, green at the beginning of life, becomes lignified as it matures, acquiring a brown tint. Shoots are of medium length (they are more oblong in its rooting fellow). In this regard, large-flowered kampsis is a bush-like form and does not exceed 10 meters in height. It grows extremely quickly, young shoots braid the support, spiraling up it.
The dark green foliage of begonia lianas is also decorative. Composite leaves have from 7 to 9 small glossy plates, unpaired located on a common petiole (rachis).
In autumn, the period of fruiting of large-flowered campis begins. At this time, in place of fallen inflorescences, numerous fruits are formed in the form of oblong pod pods.
The best varieties
Campsis has always attracted the attention of breeders. Attempts have been made to develop various hybrid forms and varieties that combine the best breed properties of mother plants. The most successful hybrids bred on the basis of large-flowered Kampsis are "Campsis Thunberg" and "Campsis Morning Freshness".
Campsis Thunberg was named after the Swedish naturalist Karl Peter Thunberg. It was first cultivated at the beginning of the 19th century. The variety is distinguished by bright orange flowers, with a shortened tube. The plant is suitable for cultivation in colder climates.
The Morning Svezhest variety has an external resemblance to the Thunberg campis, but its flowers are more decorative. They are bright orange with a yellow base. The petals are decorated with reddish veins.
Variety Morning Svezhest, bred on the basis of large-flowered Kampsis, is beautiful for its elegant flowers
Application in landscape design
Large-flowered campsis is distinguished by its rapid growth. Creeping stems, for a short time, braid all available surfaces, protecting and decorating them. By letting the vine grow freely along the vertical supports, you can plant the garden fence, arch or wall of the house. The plant will mark the boundaries of the personal plot or divide the territory into separate economic zones.
A gazebo or veranda, densely intertwined with shoots, looks very picturesque. So you can decorate any recreation area with a plant. With skillful handling, large-flowered Kampsis can be perfectly combined with garden furniture or small architectural structures.
Experienced designers guide the shoots of the plant, forcing it to braid the vertical support so that the large-flowered campis forms into a beautiful, neat tree or shrub with a lush crown.
Large-flowered campsis, like all lianas, is very viable. Therefore, both generative (seed) and vegetative (by shoots, layering and cuttings) methods are suitable for plant breeding.
The seed method of breeding large-flowered campsis is used less often than others, since it has a number of significant disadvantages:
- With seed propagation of hybrid varieties, there is a risk of loss of valuable properties of parent plants.
- Plants obtained by the seed method do not bloom for a long period of time (5-7 years after planting).
Advice! The advantage of this type of breeding of large-flowered campis is simplicity. It can even be used by inexperienced gardeners.
Seeds of large-flowered kampsis collected in autumn for planting do not lose their properties for a long time. The seeds are withdrawn for seedlings in early spring. For this, a nutritious soil mixture with a neutral composition is preliminarily prepared, after which it is scattered into containers. The seeds are sown, deepening them by about 0.5 cm and watered abundantly.
For germination, a container with seeds of large-flowered kampsis is placed in a warm place and covered with plastic wrap on top. The first shoots should appear in about a month. When 3-4 pairs of true leaves are formed, the seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place. Young plants are accepted well and develop actively.
This method is used in early spring or autumn. A powerful basal process is chosen and dug out together with a part of the root, after which it is transplanted to a permanent place, watering abundantly. The plant takes root, as a rule, safely.
Advice! The method of cultivating Kampsis with large-flowered basal shoots is preferable, since it guarantees the preservation of the valuable varietal traits inherent in the mother plant after planting.
A cut is a rooted aerial shoot belonging to the mother plant. They are grown using the lowest branches of the large-flowered campis. Having chosen the most powerful, they are bent to the ground, carefully sprinkled and fixed in this position, waiting for rooting. Water and care as much as the mother plant. The next spring, the established sprout is separated from the mother branch, carefully dug up and planted in a permanent place.
This method is only applicable during summer time. Cuttings are prepared and planted in the ground in June or July, since the plant must have time to take root before the onset of frost. Cut off the strong stems, leaving the middle part with the upper leaves. Cooked cuttings are planted in makeshift beds at a slight angle. Caring for cuttings consists of regular watering and mulching. After rooting, young plants are dug out for planting in a permanent place.
Propagation of large-flowered Kampsis by cuttings is convenient to carry out in small plastic containers
Planting and leaving
Large-flowered campsis is extremely unpretentious - both planting and caring for it are simple. Even an inexperienced and novice gardener can breed it on his site.
Large-flowered campsis is quite thermophilic, therefore it is recommended to plant it in permanent soil in April-May. At this time, as a rule, the ground is already warm enough, and the risk of spring frosts is minimal. In the south, this can be done from mid-April, and in colder climates, not earlier than mid-May.
Site selection and preparation
For planting large-flowered campsis, the southern or southeastern part of the site is chosen - the one where there is more sun and no drafts. It is also necessary to ensure that there are no other plants in the immediate environment, since the climbing vine can destroy them. The plant is unpretentious to the composition of the soil, but it is important to ensure that it is always sufficiently loosened and moisturized. Good flowering can be achieved on soils saturated with essential trace elements.
In autumn, planting holes are prepared for the plant (about 30 by 30 cm). If the soil is clay, then drainage in the form of pebbles or broken bricks is laid on the bottom. Then, the removed soil is mixed with humus, sand and complex mineral fertilizer and, temporarily covering the holes, is left until spring.
In the spring, when the growing season begins, planting begins. After filling the hole about half, place the seedling, gently spreading the roots. Having poured out the remaining soil, they compact it. After that, watered abundantly and sprinkle the trunk circle with mulch. Each sprout must be provided with a vertical rail along which it will climb in the process of growth.
Watering and feeding schedule
After planting, large-flowered campsis needs regular watering. With the onset of heat, irrigation should be daily. They are carried out in the morning or evening, when the activity of the sun is minimal. At the end, the soil is mulched, preventing moisture evaporation.
Important! The frequency and regularity of feeding large-flowered campis depends on the composition of the soil. The plant, planted in light, fertile soil, begins to feed in the third year after planting. The poor soil is enriched monthly with a nitrogen-potassium-phosphorus supplement, thereby ensuring lush flowering.
Trimming and shaping
Pruning and shaping the crown are important procedures for caring for large-flowered campis. They are necessary in order to prevent rapid expansion in breadth, which can drown out the growth of other garden plantings. Removing the old, obsolete branches of the plant, they achieve a lush color, since the development of new buds occurs on young shoots.
The formation of the crown of large-flowered Kampsis allows you to imagine the plant in the form of an unusual tree
Care for the future crown begins immediately after planting young seedlings of large-flowered Kampsis in the ground. Pruning is done immediately, leaving a part of the stem above the ground, not exceeding 20 cm. The further development of the plant is controlled by removing some shoots and leaving only the most powerful ones. Fix them on a support, giving them the desired direction of growth.
In order to ensure sufficient crown density, lateral shoots are pruned. This will stimulate lush branching. Pruning and shaping is done in early spring, before the sap has awakened. At the same time, sanitary pruning is carried out, branches that have been broken off and damaged during the winter are removed. To help the formation of new buds, wilted flowers and leaves are cut off.
Preparing for winter
Large-flowered campsis does not have good frost resistance, therefore, it needs mandatory pre-winter preparation. First, the damaged branches, wilted processes are removed. The near-trunk circle is cleaned of fallen leaves, since in the spring it can become a source of reproduction of a fungal infection.
The roots are sprinkled with sand, and the plant itself is carefully removed from the support, laid on the ground and wrapped in spruce leaves or wood shavings. In the event that it is not possible to remove the large-flowered Kampsis from the supports, the covering material is placed vertically, fixing it on the branches. From above, the leaves of the plant are covered with polyethylene.
Pests and diseases
Large-flowered campsis is a genetically healthy crop. Poor care (lack or excess of mineral fertilizers, too abundant watering) as well as unfavorable climatic conditions (too rainy or dry summer) can be the cause of possible diseases. The following diseases are most common:
- Bacterial rot is caused by pathogenic bacteria of the genus Pectobacterium, Erwinia. It can be provoked by an excessive amount of fertilizer, waterlogging of the roots with stagnant water, and unsuitable soil. The infection penetrates through mechanical damage on the leaves. The main preventive measures are disinfection of the soil before planting, antiseptic treatment of plant cuts and garden tools.
- Fungal diseases of plants provoke a humid, cool climate. The fungus appears with brown spots on the leaves. To prevent its development, large-flowered campis should be planted only on the sunny side, and organic debris should be removed in preparation for winter. The main therapy for fungus is fungicide treatment (mainly Bordeaux liquid).
- The long absence of flowering and fruiting, yellow bloom on the leaves speaks of the viral lesion of large-flowered Kampsis. For protection, diseased areas are removed. If large areas are affected, then the plant is completely eliminated.
- At the onset of heat, the leaves of large-flowered kampsis can be affected by aphids. They are struggling with it by spraying the plantings with a solution of ammonia (50 ml per 4 liters of water).
Advice! The plant is an excellent honey plant. But sweet nectar attracts bees and other insects - flies, ants, wasps. In this regard, planting large-flowered kampsis is not recommended at the entrance to the house or near the windows.
Large-flowered campsis is a rather aggressive crop. Having made the decision to use vines on your site, you need to remember about the precautions, the features of planting and caring for the plant.