Many newcomers to viticulture, trying to understand the variety of varieties and modern hybrid forms of grapes, make the mistake of believing that the old varieties no longer make sense to grow, since they have been replaced by new ones, more resistant and easier to handle. Of course, in many ways, selection has really made a huge step forward, and for many vegetable and fruit crops, old varieties are often incomparable with new ones obtained in recent decades.
But grapes have always been grown by true enthusiasts, for whom caring for their plant pets was even more than a common hobby. It is not in vain that the maximum number of hybrid forms of grapes known and popular now were obtained from among the amateur winegrowers, delighting with their characteristics of yield, taste and stability.
Therefore, it is not surprising that the Rizamat grape, bred more than half a century ago in Central Asia, still remains unsurpassed in some of its characteristics, and above all, in taste and yield. Yes, it takes a lot of effort to grow it, but the result is worth it and real growers understand this well. It is for this reason that Rizamat grapes are still grown in many areas and, perhaps, even those who once removed it still regret it. You can find a description of the variety and a photo of the incomparable Rizamat in this article, but its seedlings will be much more difficult to find. Moreover, in recent years, a large number of varieties have appeared, which, hiding behind his name, are trying to find their buyer. But almost all of them are practically incomparable with the true Rizamat grape variety.
Description of the variety
The Rizamat grape variety is unique in that it is equally excellent both when eaten fresh and when dried as raisins. Therefore, this variety is often called not just table, but even table-raisin. The Rizamat grape was obtained in the middle of the last century in Uzbekistan by the famous winegrower Rizamat Musamuhamedov, in whose honor it received its name. The local grape varieties Katta-Kurgan and Parkent were the parents of this variety. But their brainchild surpassed both parents in its characteristics.
The growth form of Rizamata bushes is so significant that this variety is not even recommended to be planted in a common row. At least when planting, it is necessary to retreat 5-6 meters from the nearest grape bush. It is best to give him complete freedom in growth and plant alone, especially since his flowers are bisexual, which means that there are no problems with pollination and the presence of other grape varieties nearby is not at all necessary.
At the same time, the leaves are not particularly large in size, they are round, slightly dissected, bare on the underside and have about five lobes.
Stepsons grow throughout the season and very intensively, so they need to be removed regularly, but pruning the bushes, especially in the spring and summer, is not recommended. Already at the end of summer, when the crop is ripe, a small chasing of shoots is allowed. Shoots of this variety are distinguished by good ripening, and their small pruning will allow them to ripen along their entire length.
Rizamata's pollination and hand-tying are at a good level.
Advice! It is recommended to leave no more than one brush per shoot, so as not to overload the bush.
In terms of ripening grapes Rizomat belongs to medium early varieties. For full ripening, it needs 130-150 days from the beginning of the growing season, and the sum of active temperatures should be at least 3000 °. Usually Rizamat begins to ripen in the southern regions of Russia from late August to mid-September.
Cuttings of this variety have good rooting, which cannot be said about the survival rate of grafts. Therefore, the propagation of the variety by grafting is rather difficult, while the cultivation of own-rooted seedlings does not present any particular problems.
After ripening, berries should not be overexposed on the bushes, they can quickly lose their presentation. Better to harvest the same harvest as the bunches ripen. Moreover, wasps also adore this grape variety and do not mind eating it whole.
What else is the Rizamat grape famous for is its amazing yield. On average, 200-250 centners of berries are harvested from one hectare of plantings. But this says little to an ordinary summer resident, but if we say that 70-80 kg of grapes can be harvested from one bush, then this fact is already capable of impressing anyone.
But unfortunately, this is where the list of the variety's advantages ends. And you can move on to its shortcomings. The Rizamat grape does not tolerate frosts below -18 ° C, which means that it needs very good shelters even in the south of Russia. Several layers of polyethylene and burlap will not be enough for him. Most likely, you will need to cover the vines with earth, which, of course, is very laborious.
In addition, Rizamat is distinguished by its instability to diseases and, first of all, to powdery mildew, or in other words, to powdery mildew. According to various sources, he needs 3-4 to 5-7 treatments against diseases per season. True, in the modern world this has become easier than in the past.
Attention! A wide range of reliable fungicides are able to fully protect the grapes.
Well, in order to get a plentiful and high-quality harvest, grapes need regular watering and feeding, in addition, he is one of the adherents of a high agricultural background. This means that before planting grape bushes, the soil should be not only free from weeds as much as possible, but also comprehensively fertilized and maintained.
Characteristics of bunches and berries
Rizamat can rightfully be proud of both the appearance of its berries and bunches, and their taste.
- The bunches have a loose conical shape with branches of various sizes.
- Their size is usually large and very large. The weight of an average bunch is 700-900 grams, but brushes weighing two or even three kilograms are often found.
- The bunches are not very dense, they can be called rather loose. In the video below, you can see in detail the clusters of a young Rizamat grape bush.
- The berries are also large in size, their weight can reach 14-15 grams.
- The shape of the berries is oblong, cylindrical. In length, they can reach 4-5 cm. Although sometimes berries are of the usual oval shape. The most interesting thing is that Rizamata has berries of slightly different shapes on the same bush.
- The skin is thin, the taste is completely imperceptible, pink in color, and on the one hand the berries are darker and richer than on the other.
- The berries are covered with a waxy bloom of medium density.
- The flesh of Rizomata grapes is very dense and crispy.
- There are few seeds, about 3-4 per berry, and they are almost invisible when eaten. It is for this reason that raisins that are absolutely stunning in taste and beauty can be made from Rizamata berries.
- The taste is sweet, juicy, absolutely unique. It can gain sugar content from 18 to 23 Brix. At the same time, the acidity level is 5-6 g / l. Tasters give its berries one of the highest marks - 9.1 points on a 10-point scale.
- The use is universal - Rizamat is a real delicacy fresh, and, in addition, very beautiful and tasty raisins are obtained from it. Of course, it is possible to make juices and compotes from it, but it is even somehow a pity to let such beauty be processed.
- The berries are well stored and can withstand short transportation.
Doubles and "descendants" of Rizamata
Rizamat was and remains such a popular grape variety, despite numerous attempts to discredit it by inept winegrowers, that it has many doubles.
One of the most common counterparts of Ukrainian selection also has many additional names, but genetically it has nothing to do with the real Rizamat at all. This is a completely separate variety, which somewhat resembles Rizamat in the shape of bunches and berries, but otherwise has nothing to do with it.
Even judging by the description of the grape variety Rizamat is stable and the reviews on it from the photo, it is difficult to confuse it with the real Rizamat, since its bunches are not so large, the color of the berries is lighter, almost white with a slight pink tint. It ripens much later than the usual Rizamata, and in terms of taste, they are not at all comparable.
According to the declared characteristics, its resistance to diseases is higher than that of Rizamat, although judging by the reviews of winegrowers, this indicator is also controversial. Flowers are female, so they require a pollinator. It is distinguished by its tremendous strength of growth, in this respect it is comparable to Rizamat, but nevertheless, according to most winegrowers, giving a similar name to this grape is nothing more than a commercial gimmick.
The famous three
Many believe that three very popular hybrid forms of Krainov's selection: Transfiguration, Anniversary of Novocherkassk and Viktor, in many respects resemble Rizamat grapes. Indeed, the bunches and berries are very similar, but at least these forms exist completely independently and do not claim the right, at least to some extent, to be called Rizamat.
The Slava Moldavia grape variety, which is also called Rizamat early or Shakhinea of Iran, outwardly rather strongly resembles Rizamat. But his berries are still smaller in weight and size, disease resistance is almost the same, but he can greatly upset by taste.
Descendant of Rizamata
The breeder Kapelyushny bred another interesting hybrid form obtained from crossing Rizamata and Talisman, which he originally named the Descendant of Rizamata. The shape turned out to be quite successful, with berries similar to those of Rizamata, otherwise it requires more detailed study. In recent years, she was renamed Juliana, so as not to heat up passions around Rizamata.
Finally, on the Internet, you can also find a variety called Black Rizamat. This already resembles an outright fraud, since there is no confirmed data on the existence of such grapes at the moment, and its description fully corresponds to the description of an ordinary Rizamata.
Those who actually grew Rizamat on their plots are very happy with their grapes and are not going to part with it, unless due to exceptional life circumstances.
Vyacheslav, 54 years old, Rostov region
I have been growing Rizamat for about 20 years, I consider it one of the best grape varieties. Of course, not without whims, but its yield, as well as taste and marketability are worth it. I do not know of any other variety that can compare with it in all its characteristics. I plant it most often separately from other varieties, I put it on the arch for the best ventilation and ripening. This variety requires a fairly long pruning of 12-14 eyes, while the entire bush consists of about 50 eyes. If the pruning is made shorter, then the yield may deteriorate, and the bush will overgrow. Traditionally, one brush is left on one vine. And I cut it only in the fall, so as not to spoil the yield. Many people talk about its instability, so the traditional three or four treatments per season are enough for me so that not a single speck is noticeable on the leaves. As for the shelter for the winter, I just remove the vines from the supports and cover them with a layer of thick polyethylene and press them with bricks, Rizamat overwinters perfectly in such conditions.
Vladimir, 48 years old,, Astrakhan region
I live in the steppe zone, where in summer there is a terrible heat and relatively little rain, but in winter frosts can reach -30 ° C. My Rizamata bushes will be 6 years old. I spray them only once a season and have not observed any diseases for all 6 years. I believe that Rizamat's stability is at the level of Codryanka or Arcadia on my site. And it ripens at about the same time as the Talisman.
The multitude of modern forms and varieties of grapes introduced into the culture for someone still cannot replace one old, but unsurpassed variety in some parameters. Such is the Rizamat grape, for some it is outdated and unstable, but for true connoisseurs and connoisseurs of taste it is a real diamond in the grape collection.