Anjou pear is one of the low-growing varieties for universal use. The fruits of the variety are used as an additive to dessert cheeses and salads, they are also used to make jam, compotes and are eaten fresh. On the territory of Russia, the Anjou pear is zoned for cultivation in the North Caucasus region.
Description of the pear variety Anjou
There are 2 varieties of varieties - green and red Anjou pear. In the first subspecies, the skin of the fruit has a pale green color, which remains unchanged as the pears ripen, except for a barely noticeable yellowness on part of the crop.
The ripeness of this variety is difficult to determine with the naked eye, however, there is a little trick to determine if the pear is ripe. To do this, you need to gently squeeze the narrow part of the fruit, at the very stalk, with two fingers. If the pear gives in to the pressure, then it is ripe.
The red Anjou pear variety was bred by accident. It practically does not differ from its predecessor, with the exception of the yellowish-red hue of the fruit.
The height of an adult tree reaches 3.5 m, but there are also specimens of about 4 m. Harvesting is easy, especially from young trees.
In addition to its main purpose, the Anjou pear is used as a decorative element for the garden. The flowering of this species is abundant and very beautiful - small flowers with petals of delicate cream tones cover the tree with a dense layer already in April.
Important! Anjou pear is not a self-pollinated variety. This means that the tree needs a pollinator to bear fruit.
It is recommended to plant other varieties next to Anjou pears that will pollinate them:
- Bere Bosc.
Anjou pear is a large-fruited variety, despite the fact that it is a short tree. The average weight of fruits is 250-300 g. In length, pears grow up to 8-9 cm, while their diameter can reach 8.5 cm.
The shape of the fruit is egg-shaped. The lower part is quite wide, however, starting from the middle of the pear, a narrowing of the fruit is outlined. The upper part is narrow but rounded at the end.
Skin color is light green. As the pear ripens, its fruits may turn slightly yellow, but in general their color does not change, which cannot be said about the red Anjou variety. It is similar to the green variety in all respects, however, ripe fruits of this pear acquire a yellow-red color.
The taste of Anjou pear is sweet, harmonious, not too sweet, but not too sour. The pulp is firm.
Pros and cons of Anjou pears
The advantages of the Anjou variety include the following characteristics:
- long-term storage of crops - from 5 to 7 months;
- pleasant fruit taste;
- decorativeness of the tree;
- low calorie content of fruits, so that they can be part of dietary meals;
- versatility - you can grow both for yourself and for sale;
- small size of the tree, which makes harvesting easier;
- intense aroma with hints of lime.
As a disadvantage of the Anjou pear, gardeners highlight the need to plant other pollinating varieties next to it.
Optimal growing conditions
When choosing a site for planting Anjou pears, one should take into account the fact that this is a thermophilic variety that needs a lot of light. It is better not to thicken the planting, although trees develop well in conditions of moderate shade.
Important! The duration of daylight hours for abundant fruiting of a pear should be at least 7-8 hours.
The requirements for the composition of the soil are modest - the tree can be planted on almost all types of soil. Fertile, drained soil is best suited for this. Planting in heavy clay areas is not recommended, however, loamy soils are acceptable. If necessary, you can correct the soil by adding to
Planting and caring for the Anjou pear
The agrotechnology of planting Anjou pears is simple and does not cause any difficulties. It is also easy to care for the variety due to its short stature. Low temperature resistance eliminates the need to cover the tree in regions with mild winters.
The Anjou pear planting algorithm looks like this:
- On the day of planting, the planting material is soaked in a container with warm water. You can add a little growth stimulant to it for better survival of the seedling. The seedling is kept in water for 4-5 hours, no more.
- In the selected area, a hole is dug about 70-90 cm deep. The dug soil is carefully laid next to the hole.
- The bottom of the planting pit is filled with fertile soil mixture. It is made independently. Composition of the mixture: topsoil from the garden plot, compost and peat moss, taken in a ratio of 2: 2: 1.
- The roots of the seedling are spread on top of the soil mixture, evenly distributing them along the bottom of the planting pit.
- The root system of the plant is sprinkled with soil and the trunk circle is slightly tamped.
- For better moisture retention, after watering, it is necessary to embed the planting pit.
Sometimes, after watering, the soil subsides a little. If this happens, sprinkle the trunk circle with a small amount of earth, leveling it to the level of the soil.
Pollinating varieties are planted at a distance of 4-4.5 m from the planting. This is the most optimal space for the transfer of pollen by wind and insects. If the trees are planted closer, there is a risk that adult pears will interfere with each other. If placed further, pollination problems may arise.
Watering and feeding
Anjou pear does not tolerate stagnation of moisture in the soil, therefore, the tree is not watered often - 1 watering every 2 weeks is enough. The frequency is increased only in case of prolonged drought or abnormal heat.
Important! Waterlogging of the soil can cause rotting of the roots, which leads to the death of the pear.
It is especially important to ensure that in November the trunk circle is not flooded with water, otherwise the excess moisture in the soil in winter will injure the tree.
In order to get a bountiful harvest of pears, it is recommended to fertilize the plantings regularly. In the spring, for a better set of green mass, the pear is fed with nitrogen, which is contained in large quantities in organic fertilizers. During the period of active fruiting, they switch to fertilizing with potassium and phosphorus. The introduction of water-soluble fertilizers into the soil improves the immune system of the pear.
The frequency of top dressing depends on the age of the tree. Young pears do not need feeding, especially when grown on fertile soils and when a nutritious soil mixture is introduced into the planting pit. True, if the growth of a tree suddenly slows down, you can feed it.
This is done after the buds have bloomed, but at the same time it is important to be in time before the end of July.
A deficiency of nutrients is indicated by the appearance of brownish or yellow spots on the leaves of the tree. Over time, the leaf plate of the pear begins to curl.
Adult plants need to be pruned from time to time to form a crown. This is done in the spring by removing weakened or damaged shoots. Also cut out too long or simply interfering branches. In addition, it is recommended to remove shoots growing vertically and towards the center of the tree. This pruning is aimed at preventing crown thickening. For the pear to develop normally, light must freely reach the inner branches, as excessive shading can create high humidity, which is an ideal environment for the development of a number of diseases.
Pruning the Anjou pear is optional in summer and autumn.
Important! It is advisable to lubricate the cut sites with garden varnish to avoid infection.
Anjou pears must be whitened in spring and autumn. This procedure protects the tree not only from low temperatures in winter, but also from sunburn in the spring months. In addition, whitewashing repels pests and prevents the spread of certain diseases.
A combination of lime, glue and copper sulfate is used as a whitewash. Solution preparation algorithm:
- 1 kg of lime is diluted in 7-8 liters of water.
- 200 g of copper sulfate is mixed with 100 g of PVA glue.
- Everything is poured into a lime solution and mixed thoroughly.
- When it becomes viscous enough, you can whitewash the pear.
Instead of PVA glue, you can take clay. Enough 200 g. To do this, it is soaked in water until it softens to a thick slurry, after which you can add clay to the solution.
Another variant of the mixture is crushed chalk with lime, diluted in water-based paint.
Whitewashing the pear is carried out from the bottom up. So, the excess of whitewash, flowing down, will fill in the missing hollows and gaps.
Preparing for winter
The Anjou pear is quite resistant to low temperatures, so adult plants are not covered for the winter. It is recommended to sprinkle young trees with a thick layer of mulch, somewhere up to 30-35 cm in height. Peat is usually used as a mulching material. Such protection will protect the pear root system from severe frosts.
If necessary, peat can be replaced with sawdust, covering the soil at the tree trunk with a layer of about 20 cm.
Advice! With the onset of heat, it is necessary to remove the shelter. If you are late with this, the pear may be snuffling.
Before mulching the plantings, you can whitewash the tree trunks as an extra precaution. You can make your own solution or purchase a ready-made mixture at any gardening store.
In regions with harsh winters, for better protection, seedlings are covered with an insulating material, on top of which spruce branches are laid out. Finally, snow is also used to protect the pear by shoveling it closer to the trunk and sprinkling the tree down to the skeletal branches.
The yield of the Anjou variety is average. The crop is harvested at the end of September, however, finally the fruits ripen already indoors, at room temperature. Ripening time - 3-5 days.
Diseases and pests
In general, the Anjou variety is quite resistant to most of the diseases that pears suffer from. On the other hand, it is better to carry out a couple of preventive measures than to treat the trees later from some kind of infection that can mow down all the plantings.
The main threats to Anjou are:
- leaf roll.
Important! All preventive measures are carried out in the spring, before the buds bloom.
The preparation "Skor" or a solution of Bordeaux liquid will help to cope with rust. Spraying with urea, which also acts as a top dressing, and chemical preparations "Ardent" and "Merpan" helps from scab.
As an additional preventive measure, it is recommended to burn fallen leaves and not plant trees next to a juniper - it is a carrier of rust.
Chemical agents cannot be used against the leaf roll, since it infects trees when the fruits have already formed on them. It is better to spray the plantings with biological preparations, for example, Fitoverm.
For more information on how to deal with pear pests, see the video below.
Anjou pear is perfect for growing in Russia. The variety safely tolerates rather low temperatures in winter, bears fruit well even in unfavorable years and is highly versatile. The fruits can be grown not only for yourself, but also for sale.