In early spring, when the buds are just swelling on the trees, the first green leaves of primrose break through from the ground. They are among the first to bloom, for which they received another name among the people - primrose. In addition, these delicate spring flowers have several more names: rams, the flower of the twelve Gods. And they are called keys because it is they who open the summer season of bright and elegant flower beds, decorated with flowers of various shades. And flower growers love them not only for their unpretentiousness and inimitable beauty, but for the fact that planting a perennial primrose and caring for them is not particularly difficult.
Brief characteristics of the plant
Primula belongs to the genus of plants of the family. Primroses, which is represented mainly by low, flowering grasses. Primroses are mostly perennial flowers, biennial and annual are extremely rare.
In the wild, primrose grows in Central Asia, North Africa, the Middle East and Europe.
The perennial primrose (pictured below), planting and caring for which is not too burdensome, has quite powerful roots. The juicy, emerald-colored leaves are collected in leafy rosettes located very close to the root system. Wrinkled, whole leaves, depending on the variety, have a simple or slightly elongated shape. In some varieties, the foliage seems to be covered with a gray-green waxy bloom.
The bright, colorful flowers of the garden perennial primrose are located on numerous long peduncles. On one peduncle, from 3 to 10 inflorescences can bloom at the same time. The number of peduncles in one outlet is up to 20.
The five-petalled flowers of the correct shape are presented in a very rich color palette. Monochromatic, bordered with a contrasting border, two-, three- and even four-colored, single or collected in inflorescences in the form of brushes or umbrellas - the variety of varieties and types of perennial primrose can amaze even avid florists.
Usually, the height of the peduncles is not much higher than the height of the primrose bushes. However, there are varieties in which flower stalks reach 30-40 cm in height. A small bush covered with flowers looks luxurious and impressive on a flower bed, impressing with a riot of colors and an abundance of flowering.
After abundant flowering, fruits are formed on the peduncles - seed capsules of a cylindrical or spherical shape. Perennial primrose is unpretentious and quickly adapts to any conditions. These delightful flowers are grown not only in gardens and backyards, but also at home.
What types and varieties exist
More than 400 species, not counting hybrids and varieties that have appeared relatively recently - a fairly wide range.
In the article, you will get acquainted not only with the secrets of planting and caring for flowers, but you can also see in the photo some of the most beautiful varieties of perennial primrose.
This species includes evergreen herbaceous perennials with leathery, thick leaves of bright green color. The size of flowers reaches 2 cm in diameter. Florists appreciate hybrid varieties of plants, presented in a rich color range. This group includes several truly unique varieties of flowers, the buds of which are painted in several very bright and contrasting colors.
Another type of flowers worthy of attention is the perennial pubescent primrose and a photo of several specimens. All varieties belonging to this species are hybrids bred by crossing auricular primroses and coarse-haired primroses. A compact perennial, no more than 15 cm in height, has high frost resistance. Flowers are arranged on powerful, erect pedicels up to 15 cm in height. The inflorescences consist of 5-15 flowers.
Abundant flowering lasts from May to the end of June.
Bushy perennial. The inflorescences of this species are large, spherical, and consist of a large number of burgundy, snow-white, lilac or purple small flowers, the diameter of which is from 0.5 to 2.5 cm.The inflorescence can reach 10 cm in diameter. The height of the peduncles ranges from 20-25 cm.
The fine-toothed perennial primrose blooms violently and luxuriantly, as in the photo, from April to mid-late June. The leaves of the flowers are covered with a kind of bloom, and it is strongly not recommended to moisturize them.
This type of flower includes perennial plants, characterized by abundant and long flowering and inimitable bell-shaped buds. Planting and caring for perennial garden primroses (see photo) belonging to the Florinda species should preferably be carried out near small bodies of water.
A feature of competent care is the regular thinning of the flower garden. To do this, 3-4 root rosettes are left on one bush, and the rest are cut off. In this case, the plant will thank you with exuberant flowering from the beginning of June to the end of August. Perennial primroses belonging to the Florinda species need mandatory shelter for the winter.
What breeding methods exist
Growing a perennial garden primrose is a fun and exciting process. First of all, this is a huge field of activity for those who like to experiment, grow new varieties, create unique flower compositions in landscape design. And the garden primrose can fully satisfy all the desires of the most sophisticated gardeners.
There are several ways to propagate primrose:
- dividing the bush (or rosettes);
- sheet plates.
And in order to grow these inimitable flowers, you need to know not only the rules for planting and caring for perennial primrose in the open field, but also a few secrets that will help you achieve a positive result.
How to grow flowers from seeds
The peculiarity of growing garden perennial primrose from seeds is that during the first year you have to grow flowers at home. The plant is transplanted into open ground only in the second or third year after planting.
At first glance, it may seem that this is a very time-consuming and troublesome process. In fact, planting seeds and caring for perennial primrose will not take much of your time and effort, and the reward for your care will be bright and inimitable flowers that decorate your garden in early spring with amazing and rich colors.
Important! When collecting primrose seeds, it is important to remember that seed collected from flowers of hybrid varieties does not retain the characteristics of a variety with this propagation method.
Before growing a perennial primrose, the seeds must be stratified without fail. This can be done in several ways:
- put dry flower seeds for several days in the freezer for 2-3 days, and then sow;
- if sowing is carried out in February-March, you can leave dry seeds for several days on the veranda / balcony;
- after sowing, do not water the flowers, but place a few handfuls of snow on the ground and smooth it over the surface. The snow layer should be at least 5-7 cm.
In general, planting seeds of perennial primrose is not much different from sowing other garden flowers:
- primrose seeds are placed in containers prepared in advance with a laid drainage layer and 2/3 filled with soil mixture, observing a minimum distance of 3-4 cm;
- the surface layer of the soil should not exceed 5-7 mm;
- seeds of garden primrose sprout for a long time - about 3-4 weeks, so be patient;
- the signal for a pick is the appearance of 2-3 full-fledged leaves.
After picking a seed-planted perennial primrose, take proper care of the flowers. Flowers are best distributed in separate flower pots. As a suitable place, you need to determine for them a not too light window sill.
Make sure that the soil in containers with flower seedlings does not dry out. Fertilize seed-grown primrose according to the recommended scheme. The first flowers, indicating the arrival of the long-awaited spring, will appear no earlier than in a year or two. The timing of flowering directly depends on the variety and growing conditions.
How to properly divide the bush
Dividing the bush is the most popular breeding method for garden primrose. This method has a lot of advantages:
- the fastest possible result;
- preservation of species and varietal characteristics in full;
- simplicity and ease of implementation.
Considering that after planting with good care, perennial primrose grows quite quickly, the bushes must be divided and planted at least once 4-5 years. This procedure is vital for plants, since old roots can no longer fully absorb nutrients. Over time, the rosettes become shallow, flowering becomes scarce, varietal signs irrevocably disappear.
Overgrown bushes of perennial primrose need to be watered well in a day. Carefully dig out the plants with a pitchfork, trying to inflict as little damage to the root system as possible. Shake off excess soil and gently rinse the rhizome.
It is only necessary to divide the root system with a clean, sharply sharpened knife. Please note that at least 2 rosettes and a piece of healthy root should be located on each separated part.
Important! You can propagate primrose by dividing the bush either before or after flowering.
Delenki are planted in accordance with the rules for planting a garden perennial primrose and provide the flowers with proper care.
If you want to propagate the plant or share your luxurious flowers with someone, and it is still early to plant primroses, you can carry out a more gentle dividing procedure.
In this case, you do not need to dig up the entire bush. It is enough to separate the young rosettes with a small piece of root with a sharp knife from the edge. Place the separated parts in a new place immediately. As with dividing a bush, this method can be used to propagate a garden primrose either in early spring, when it has not yet blossomed, or after flowering. The second option is more preferable.
Reproduction by leaf plates
Some varieties of perennial primroses also reproduce with the help of leaf plates. And this method, as well as when growing perennial primrose from seeds, will also require a lot of time and effort. But when has this stopped avid florists wanting to decorate their backyards with new, chic varieties of flowers?
Reproduction by leaf blades is a fairly well-known and affordable method that allows you to preserve all the varietal characteristics of the original plant. And he is very familiar to many flower growers. This is how homemade violets are propagated.
After flowering, the healthiest and strongest leaves with cuttings are separated from the bush. Please note that the foliage must be firm. Sluggish, yellowed and diseased leaves are not suitable for breeding perennial primrose.
Many growers advise stratification of soaked or already swollen seeds. This is fundamentally wrong! It is useless to wait for germination with this method of stratification!
To accelerate root formation, cut the leaf plate by 2/3. That is, you should have a petiole in your hands, on which 1/3 of the leaf is located. Treat the petiole with a stimulant for the formation and growth of roots.
The seedlings prepared in this way are planted in flower pots filled with potting soil for growing indoor flowers. You need to deepen the cuttings at an angle and no more than 2 cm.
The stalk of a perennial primrose takes root for a long time. You can see the first signs of rooting no earlier than in 3-4 weeks. To speed up the process, you can cover the cuttings with glass jars. As soon as the first small leaves appear, the shelter can be removed.
Planting primrose rules
As you know, not only the appearance of the plant, but also the splendor of flowering, as well as the preservation of varietal traits over a long period, depends on how competently and scrupulously all the recommendations for planting and caring for perennial primrose are implemented.
Choosing a suitable site
Most garden flowers prefer sunny, well-lit areas. It is very difficult to pick up plants for shaded and low-light places. A perennial garden primrose is a great option to fill vacant areas.
When choosing a variety, you need to pay attention to color preferences. Some varieties like extremely sunny places, for others, shaded areas on the north side of buildings or under trees are ideal, while others are best planted near small bodies of water.
Please note that the wrong place will immediately negatively affect the plant. Light-loving primroses planted in the shade will often hurt. Shade-loving flowers, planted in a brightly lit area, will not give that brightness and splendor during flowering.
We determine the optimal terms
When determining the optimal timing for planting a perennial primrose, not only the method of reproduction of flowers is important, but also the estimated time of transplanting into open ground.
With seed reproduction, you can sow flowers:
- In the autumn. It is advisable to sow seeds of perennial primrose immediately in open ground in October-December. This method of sowing seeds is deservedly considered the most effective, since the seed material undergoes a process of natural stratification.
- In early spring, perennial primrose seeds are planted in late February - early March.
- In summer, seeds can be sown after the seed pods have ripened. When planting and caring for perennial primrose in the summer, it is important to ensure that the soil is always moist.
It is preferable to plant perennial primrose in open ground in early spring, when the air temperature is at least + 14˚C + 16˚C outside. In most regions, the appropriate period is late April - early May. Before planting, flowers kept at home must be tempered for a week.
In autumn, plant transplants can only be carried out one year after sowing. Mid-late October is the most suitable time for planting primroses in open ground.
When growing a garden perennial primrose in the open field or at home, it is important to know that plants grow better and bloom violently on light, loose and fertile soils.
Soil moisture is also important. In the areas for planting primrose, there should be no stagnation of moisture. Areas with high groundwater levels are also unsuitable for growing flowers - the root system will rot and the plant will die.
Before planting a perennial primrose in depleted soil, it must be fertilized in advance. For 5-7 days before the intended planting of primrose, enrich the soil with the following mixture per 1 m²:
- compost - 10 kg;
- humus - 5 kg;
- peat - 5 kg;
- sand - 5 kg.
If you wish, you can add complex mineral fertilizers to the soil. Dig up and level the future flower bed thoroughly.
You can plant primroses on a site prepared in this way no earlier than a week later.
In general, the process of planting a perennial primrose is not much different from the planting work of other garden flowers. However, there are several recommendations that it is advisable to follow so that later the results are not disastrous:
- When growing garden primrose from seeds in open ground, flowers can only be planted 1-2 years after growing at home.
- The minimum distance between flowers depends on the variety and size of the plants. Observe an interval of 15 cm for compact primroses, at least 20 cm for large primroses.
- When planning a flower bed, consider an important feature of annual or perennial primroses - they do not like free space at all. Try to plant flowers so that during the growth process there are practically no empty areas between the bushes.
- Transplanting or replanting primroses is best in cool weather. The best time to plant is early morning or evening.
- When planting in autumn, flowers must be covered for the winter even before the onset of frost. Weak, immature primroses do not have time to fully prepare for frost.
Immediately after the completion of planting work, the flowers should be watered abundantly and shaded for 3-4 days.
Advice! Despite the fact that primroses are moisture-loving plants, the soil in the flower garden should allow moisture to pass through well.
Despite the fact that the primrose does not need close attention and constant care, it will be almost impossible to grow really luxurious flowers that delight in early spring with their bright colors without observing the rules of agricultural cultivation. This amazing beauty is not too demanding in this regard.
How often to water primroses
Perennial and annual primrose is a very moisture-loving plant. The soil in the flower garden should always be moist. In the spring, you need to water the flowers at least 1-2 times a week. But in the summer, the frequency of irrigation, like the volume of water, needs to be doubled.
It is especially important to pay great attention to this point of care after planting the perennial primrose, as well as during flowering. After planting the plant in the spring, you need to water the planting every day for 1.5-2 weeks.
In rainy weather and with excessive moisture, watering can be excluded.
Top dressing scheme
Don't forget about fertilizers. Regular soil enrichment with minerals is an important component of proper care of garden primrose after planting, in the budding phase, and during flowering.
During a period of relative rest, primrose does not really need feeding. You need to fertilize flowers no more than 2-3 times during the entire vegetative period:
- In early spring, as soon as the snow melts and the first signs of the plant awakening from winter sleep appear, feed the primroses with a mineral complex.
- In June-July, it is better to use organic.
- In the second half of August, you can add ammonium nitrate.
The winter hardiness of primrose is increased by feeding on the basis of potassium and superphosphate. Therefore, ammonium nitrate can be replaced with phosphorus-containing fertilizers.
Since primrose is a big lover of moisture, it is often affected by fungal diseases, including powdery mildew, rust, rot, bacterial spots. At the slightest sign of fungal diseases, plants should be treated with fungicides.
With the manifestation of bacterial diseases, more radical measures are taken. Affected flowers are removed, the soil is treated with special preparations. It is undesirable to plant perennial primrose in the same place for 4-5 years.
Insects also often choose primroses as a haven. As soon as you notice the appearance of aphids, weevils, spider mites or flea beetles in the flower garden, take urgent action. Spray flowers with insecticides.
The author of the video will share his secret of growing perennial primrose from seeds with you
Thanks to its brightness and various colors, perennial primrose will help to emphasize the advantages of your personal plot and fill empty places with beautiful flowers. Any shaded corner of the garden will look rosy and inviting. By combining several different varieties, you can create chic and unique flower beds and flower arrangements that will bring aesthetic pleasure from spring to late summer.