Not a single garden or suburban area is complete without tomato bushes. Tomatoes are not only very tasty, but also an extremely healthy vegetable, they contain a lot of vitamins and microelements. The tomato has excellent taste characteristics, this juicy and aromatic fruit can be eaten both fresh and processed. Juice is made from tomatoes, whole fruits can be preserved, added to salads and many different dishes.
What varieties and hybrids of tomatoes are best grown in the climatic conditions of the Moscow region? How to plant tomato seeds for seedlings on your own, and how to care for these plants - everything in this article.
Tomatoes for the Moscow region, first of all, must correspond to the climatic features of this region. The Moscow region belongs to the zone of a temperate continental climate, in this region there are quite mild winters, without severe frosts, and summers are rainy and cool.
These are the criteria that tomato varieties for the Moscow region must meet. Given this, it can be argued that it is best to purchase seeds of early and mid-season varieties, the fruits of which will have time to ripen in a short and cool summer. Mid-late and late-ripening varieties and hybrids of tomatoes run the risk of not ripening due to low temperatures and high humidity. Such conditions are an ideal environment for the development of the main enemies of tomatoes - late blight and fungi.
So, when choosing tomato seeds for the Moscow region, you need to consider:
- Method of growing tomatoes. If there is a greenhouse or a heated greenhouse on the site, then you can not be limited in choosing a variety. In such conditions, absolutely any type of tomato is grown. But for open ground, you need to select climate-oriented varieties, tomatoes selected for the south of the country, for example, are not suitable for growing in the Moscow region.
- The type of soil on the site. Tomatoes love light, loose soil. If the ground in the summer cottage is too heavy and dense, before planting tomatoes in it, you will have to work on the composition of the soil. The soil can be loosened by adding rotted sawdust or peat to it. Do not forget about feeding the "lean" soil - it must be fertilized with manure or humus.
- Watering frequency means a lot to the normal growth of tomatoes. So, if the plot is of a summer cottage type, and the owner can visit it only on weekends, it is better to buy tomato seeds with small fruits - they need less water. Fleshy, large tomatoes require daily watering during the ripening period, especially if the weather is hot and dry.
- The purpose of the fruit. When tomatoes are needed for fresh consumption, there are several interesting varieties with unusual taste or exotic appearance to choose from. It is more convenient to preserve medium and small-fruited tomatoes, they fit well in jars, they are better saturated with brine. For salads, elastic tomatoes are chosen, but thin-crusty juicy varieties are more suitable for making tomato juice.
Advice! Depending on where the tomatoes will grow, their variety is chosen according to the height of the bush. For example, it is much more efficient to plant tall tomatoes in closed greenhouses, which yield up to 50 kilograms of fruit from one bush. But on the street it is better to grow undersized tomatoes with compact bushes, since this culture does not like the wind, which can easily break fragile branches with heavy fruits.
How tomatoes are grown in the Moscow region
There are no fundamental differences in the tomato planting scheme in the Moscow region. The only rule is that in accordance with the climatic characteristics of the region, it is necessary to plant tomatoes in the ground in the suburbs not earlier than mid-May.
This means that seeds for seedlings must be sown already in March-April. Of course, you can buy ready-made tomato seedlings on the market or in a specialized store, but there is no guarantee that the money will be paid for the right variety.
To be sure of what kind of tomato is growing in a summer cottage, it is better to grow seedlings yourself.
Attention! In this case, seeds must be purchased from a trusted supplier. It should be a well-known agricultural company with excellent reviews and characteristics.
An even more reliable way is to collect seed material from the previous tomato harvest with your own hands. You just need to remember - only varietal tomatoes are suitable for this, it makes no sense to collect seeds from hybrids.
How to grow tomato seedlings
First of all, you need to select seed for planting. To do this, all the seeds from the bag are poured onto the table and carefully examined. Good material should contain seeds of approximately the same size, having the most even edges and a uniform color.
All ugly, uneven and damaged seeds must be thrown away - they will not grow a fertile bush.
To disinfect tomato seeds, they are immersed in hot water. In this state, the seeds are left for 2-3 days. After that, the treatment is supplemented by soaking in a weak solution of potassium permanganate - the whole procedure will take about half an hour.
Important! It is imperative to process tomato seeds before planting - this crop is prone to many diseases and viruses. The exception is purchased seeds that have already passed disinfection and hardening.
Seedling soil should consist of three parts:
- turf land.
In addition, you can use commercial soil designed for growing seedlings.
The soil is poured into individual cups or into a common wooden box. Small indentations are made - up to 5 mm deep. If seeds are sown in common boxes, the distance between the holes should be at least three centimeters.
A seed is placed in each groove and carefully sprinkled with earth. Watering tomato seeds should be extremely careful; it is better to use a spray bottle for this. After moistening the soil, the boxes are covered with plastic wrap and placed in a warm place for seed germination.
The higher the room temperature, the faster the tomato seeds will hatch. So, at a temperature of about 28 degrees, the first shoots will appear on the third or fourth day after planting. If the room is 20-23 degrees, you will have to wait for the sprouts for about a week. At night, the temperature can drop to 15 degrees.
Water the seedlings as the soil dries, it is better to do this with the same spray bottle so as not to damage the delicate stems and roots. Once every ten days, seedlings are fertilized with humus dissolved in water.
When the plant stems reach a height of 35-40 cm, the seedlings are ready for planting in a permanent place.
How are tomatoes taken care of?
Tomato seedlings are planted according to the 50x50 scheme, leaving at least 0.5 meters of space between the bushes. This is necessary for normal ventilation of the tomatoes and sufficient nutrition for the bushes.
After planting, the seedlings do not need to be watered for about 1-1.5 weeks. If at this time the weather is hot and dry, you can carefully irrigate the bushes, being careful not to get water on the leaves and stems of the plants.
When the tomatoes start to bloom, they need to be fed. Any fertilizer will do, you need to be more careful only with a mullein - an excessive amount of it will lead to the growth of leaves and shoots, respectively, to a decrease in the number of fruits.
Diseased tomatoes should be checked regularly for infested plants. After prolonged rains or during a sharp cold snap, tomatoes are treated with fungicidal solutions, since they are highly likely to be infected with a fungus.
Tomatoes are a crop that needs to be pinned regularly. Shoots are broken off every eight days, when their length reaches 3-4 cm.
In August, when night temperatures drop, you can pick unripe tomatoes and put them in a dark place with a temperature of 20-22 degrees. Under these conditions, the fruits will ripen without losing their taste. You can also cover tomato bushes overnight with thick plastic wrap or agrofibre.
Attention! If tomatoes are grown in greenhouses, it is very important to open the greenhouse doors daily in the morning for ventilation. If this is not done, the tomatoes will simply "cook" on the bushes in hot weather.
Description of the best varieties of tomatoes for the Moscow region
In accordance with the listed factors, some of the most suitable tomato varieties for the Moscow region can be distinguished into a separate group. So, popular varieties:
This hybrid belongs to indeterminate tomatoes (the height of the bush is more than two meters), so it needs to be grown in greenhouses or greenhouses. In such conditions, the first tomatoes ripen somewhere on the 117th day after germination, which makes it possible to classify the variety as mid-season.
The crop has a high yield and excellent taste. The demand for the De Barao tomato variety is evidenced by the variety of species of this hybrid: there are red, yellow, black, pink fruits of this variety.
Tomatoes grow oval in shape, have a glossy surface and are medium in size. The weight of each fruit is approximately 50-70 grams. Tomato "De Barao" has an excellent set of sugars and vitamins, it can be eaten fresh and canned whole fruits in jars. At least eight kilograms of tomato are obtained from one bush per season. You can see the fruits of this variety in the photo below.
Review of the tomato "De Barao"
Stepanova Elena, 48 years old, Angarsk
I've tried many varieties, but I keep coming back to this tomato. It is perfectly suited for canning - the fruits are small, smooth, the pulp is dense with a pronounced "tomato" taste. These tomatoes are excellent for canning, pickling or fermenting - they are quickly saturated with brine and retain their elasticity. Of course, you always want to try something exotic, but “De Barao” tomatoes must be in every vegetable garden - they will become a lifesaver both in a bad season and in a dry summer.
Of course, you always want to try something exotic, but “De Barao” tomatoes must be in every vegetable garden - they will become a lifesaver both in a bad season and in a dry summer.
Hybrid with early ripening - the first tomatoes can be enjoyed already on the 90th day after the emergence of seedlings. The bushes are powerful, reaching a height of one meter.
Ripe tomatoes are pink in color, have a spherical shape and a glossy peel. The mass of each tomato reaches 200-250 grams.
The taste qualities of the “Alenka” tomatoes are high, the yield is also quite high - a gardener can get about 14 kg of tomatoes from each square meter.
The hybrid variety is protected from most "tomato" diseases, tolerates low and high temperatures, the fruits do not crack.
It is necessary to plant this variety for seedlings in early March - this is due to the early ripening of the tomato. Seedlings are planted in the ground when the threat of frost passes, and the earth warms up. Due to their "hybridity", these tomatoes can be grown in any soil - they are unpretentious and do not require complex maintenance.
The bushes of this tomato are compact and low - their height rarely exceeds 0.5 meters. Bunches of tomatoes literally lie on the ground. At the same time, the mass of the fruits is quite large - 250-300 grams.
The variety belongs to early maturing, tomatoes can be grown both in the greenhouse and in the open field. Tomatoes "Mongolian dwarf" are very unpretentious, they can be grown on soil of any composition.
Even in severe drought, tomatoes can withstand some time without watering. Experienced gardeners consider the disadvantage of the hybrid to be the different quality and taste of the fruits with different growing methods.
Another early maturing variety, perfect for growing in the Moscow region. The first tomatoes can be enjoyed within 85 days after germination.
Bushes grow tall - up to two meters. Tomatoes grow on them in bunches, each of which has six fruits. The shape of the tomato is elongated, oblong. The color is red.
These tomatoes taste sweet and very aromatic. Each of them weighs 90-100 grams. The fruits tolerate transportation well and can be stored for a long time.
The variety of tomatoes does not require special care, the only thing is that they must be tied to a trellis.
Which variety to choose
Summer residents of the Moscow region can choose any of the proposed varieties of tomatoes. In addition to the proposed tomatoes, any early ripening and unpretentious hybrids are suitable - reviews of tomato varieties for the Moscow region can help in choosing. In order for the harvest to be stable, it is recommended to grow at least two or three different varieties of tomatoes in one area.