Gooseberry Chernomor is a time-tested variety with a high yield of black berries. Resistant to frost and powdery mildew, the crop is very popular among gardeners, due to the absence of difficulties in growing. However, in order to achieve maximum performance, before cultivating a shrub, it is worth studying its characteristics, strengths and weaknesses, planting and care features.
Description of gooseberry Chernomor
Gooseberries Chernomor (description and photos are given below) refers to medium late varieties. For the dark color of the berries, the culture is also called "northern grapes" or "garden dates". Bred shrub Chernomor KD Sergeeva in the Scientific Center named after I. V. Michurin on the basis of varieties Brazilian, Finik, Green bottle, Mauer Seed.
The Chernomor variety has the following characteristics:
- The shape of the bush is not very spreading, with a dense crown.
- Gooseberry shoots are upright, not pubescent, light green in color (as they age, they may brighten). Reach a height of 1.5 m.
- The degree of spine in the branches is weak. Spines are rare, thin, single, directed downward.
- The leaf plate of Chernomor is small, convex, shiny, saturated green, divided into 5 lobes. The central part of the leaf rises above the edges.
- Gooseberry inflorescences consist of 2-3 elongated, medium-sized, pale green flowers with pink edging.
- Chernomor fruits are small (about 3 g), oval, dark red or black (depending on the degree of ripeness).
Self-pollinated gooseberry variety, intended for cultivation in the Central region of Russia, in Ukraine.
Advice! To achieve maximum yields, experienced gardeners recommend planting other varieties of gooseberries with the same flowering time (from late April to mid-May) next to the crop.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
Gooseberry Chernomor has good drought resistance, can easily tolerate a long-term lack of moisture. The shrub compensates for the lack of liquid due to the ability of deep penetration of the root system into the soil.
The Chernomor variety perfectly withstands cold winters, due to which, in practice, it is successfully cultivated throughout the territory of the Russian Federation.
Gooseberry fruits Chernomor (shown in the photo) are characterized by:
- harmonious, sweet and sour taste (tasters' assessment - 4.3);
- good yield (up to 10 t / ha or up to 4 kg per bush);
- strong skin (suitable for mechanized harvesting);
- early ripening (first and second decades of July);
- good transportability and keeping quality.
The chemical composition of Chernomor berries in terms of sugar content is in the range of 8.4-12.2%, and in terms of acidity - 1.7-2.5%. The amount of ascorbic acid per 100 g of gooseberries is 29.3 mg.
Jams, jams, jellies, juices, marmalades, wine are made from the fruits of this variety, as well as delicious sauces, casseroles, kvass, jelly are made. Gooseberries are also suitable for fresh consumption. The shrub is of great value as an early honey plant.
Important! With prolonged exposure to the sun after ripening, the Chernomor berries are baked.
Advantages and disadvantages
Gardeners consider the advantages of the variety:
- early maturity;
- good taste of berries;
- versatility of fruits;
- high portability;
- immunity to powdery mildew;
- drought and frost resistance;
- undemanding to soils;
- small studding;
- ease of breeding.
The disadvantages of the Chernomor gooseberry are called the average size of the berries and the tendency to thicken the bush.
For culture propagation, gardeners use 2 methods: horizontal layering or cuttings.
A high survival rate of cuttings is a characteristic feature of the Chernomor gooseberry variety. The method of cuttings is more efficient as it makes it possible to get more shoots in one planting. To do this, 2-year-old shrub shoots are cut into pieces about 12-15 cm long and planted in a substrate prepared from sand, garden soil and peat.
Advice! Before planting cuttings of this gooseberry variety, it is advisable to treat them with root formation stimulants.
The digging of branches is carried out in several stages:
- a healthy shoot is placed in a small groove;
- pinned with a staple;
- sprinkle with earth;
- moisten the soil.
In the fall, rooted gooseberry layers are transplanted to a permanent place.
Planting and leaving
Chernomor gooseberry prefers sunny, draft-protected areas.
Attention! Shaded areas with groundwater close to the surface are not suitable for planting crops.
The soil for planting sprouts of the Chernomor variety is chosen light, permeable. Forest-steppe soils, medium or light loams are ideal. Regardless of the type of soil, fertilizers are added to each planting hole (about 40 g of potassium sulfate and 30 g of superphosphate).
The very planting of gooseberries is carried out in early spring, in the interval between the snow melting and the beginning of the movement of plant juices, or in the fall, a month before the onset of the first frost.
When choosing a planting material of the Chernomor variety, they carefully examine it for damage, putrefactive processes or diseases. Experienced gardeners recommend purchasing two-year-old seedlings with an open root system. Alternatively, you can buy potted gooseberry seedlings. Then it is worth focusing on the length of the shoots with leaves of 40-50 cm, the white color of the roots and their large number.
After purchasing the seedlings of the Chernomor variety, the tips of the roots and branches are shortened (5-6 buds are left), after which the root system of the plants is treated with growth stimulants. For this, the shoots are immersed in the solution for ¼ hour.
Chernomor gooseberries are planted in the following sequence:
- Prepare holes 30x40x40 cm in size.The distance between the planting holes in a row should be up to 1.2 m, row spacing - about 2 m.
- Pour some fertile soil into the hole, form a hill from it.
- Place a gooseberry seedling in the central part of the pit.
- They straighten the root system, sprinkle it with earth, slightly compact it.
- Water the soil, mulch with a layer of sawdust or peat.
- After 3 days, repeat the watering and mulching procedure.
Important! The root collar of a shrub of this variety can be buried no more than 5 cm.
The gooseberry variety Chernomor does not cause difficulties in cultivation, but it requires a number of agrotechnical measures to be carried out in a timely manner.
Watering the bush is carried out several times per season:
- before flowering;
- after the formation of the ovary;
- before the berries ripen;
- after harvesting;
- in preparation for wintering.
Important! To avoid the development of diseases, water can only be poured under the root, avoiding moisture on the leaves.
Chernomor gooseberries begin to need pruning only in the second year of cultivation. According to the rules, only 4 skeletal branches are left, located opposite each other. Branches of the second or third order are thinned out annually, in autumn or spring. This is done to make it easier to harvest the gooseberry and to provide the ability to ventilate the bush.
All the necessary fertilizers are laid in the hole even when the Chernomor gooseberry seedlings are planted, therefore, fertilizing is applied only for the 4th year of cultivating the variety. To do this, add to the soil:
- superphosphate (150 g);
- potassium sulfate (40 g);
- wood ash (200 g);
- organic matter (up to 10 kg).
Repeat this procedure every 3 years. In between, the soil under the bush is loosened and mulched with peat or humus (10 kg per plant). In the spring, urea is introduced: at the beginning of May - 15 g, after the end of flowering - 10 g.
To protect the tall Chernomor from wind damage and ensure its vertical growth, for the first few years the shrub is tied to a trellis or a peg.
In preparation for wintering, the area planted with gooseberries is weeded, dry leaves and vegetation are removed, and then the aisles are dug to a depth of 18 cm.
In order to shelter for the winter, the culture is wrapped in agrospan, and with the arrival of winter, it is sprinkled with snow.
Pests and diseases
The gooseberry variety Chernomor has strong immunity to major diseases. However, for preventive purposes, in the spring it is treated with a solution of Karbofos or ash.
To protect the crop from pests during the growing season of Chernomor, 3-4 sprays with Fufanon, Tsiperus or Samurai are carried out.
Gooseberry Chernomor is a shrub that is resistant to diseases and temperature extremes, unpretentious to care for. And strict adherence to simple agrotechnical requirements is the key to obtaining a bountiful harvest of large berries with high taste.
Alexandra Reznik, 44 years old, Lugansk.
For me, the gooseberry variety Chernomor is number one. It is resistant to diseases, has few thorns (and even those are soft), gives large yields of tasty, sweet berries, has a pleasant wine aroma. In appearance, it is also very beautiful (with glossy leaves and bright flowers), it can become a decoration of any garden plot. The only drawback is that you cannot keep the gooseberry crop for a long time after ripening on the bushes. Some of the berries, especially after heavy rains, may crack.
Irina Kosareva, 35 years old, Voronezh.
I like berries very much, especially gooseberries. For the seventh year I have been growing different varieties of it. One of the favorites is Chernomor. Maybe there are more interesting varieties in terms of taste or size of fruits, but in terms of resistance to bad weather or diseases, Chernomor is one of the best. Saplings take root quickly and easily. Can be grown as regular gooseberry shrubs or in a standard shape. And dark berries are not only pleasing to the eye, but also give a beautiful color to jam, jams or juices.