Cucumbers are undoubtedly the most common and favorite vegetable crop among gardeners. Unfortunately, the climatic and natural conditions of Russia do not allow, when grown in the open field, to achieve results and yield comparable to those obtained in the closed ground of greenhouses or greenhouses. In most of the Russian regions, the yield of cucumbers when grown in open fields leaves much to be desired. Krasnodar Territory is one of the few exceptions to this rule. It, like the Kuban as a whole (the concept of "Kuban" as a region includes most of the Krasnodar and part of the Stavropol Territory, the south of the Rostov region, as well as the Republic of Adygea and Karachay-Cherkessia), being a southern region, is better than others for growing cucumbers in open ground. That is why cucumber is one of the main vegetable crops in the Krasnodar Territory.
Before describing the varieties and hybrids of cucumbers that are most common in the Krasnodar Territory, it is necessary to describe the features of this vegetable crop and the region under consideration.
Description and features
Cucumbers have become widespread in most regions of Russia, even where their cultivation is fraught with numerous difficulties. Obviously, in the southern regions, such as the Krasnodar Territory, it is generally one of the leading vegetable crops.
Almost no one thinks about the benefits and value of the plant, due to its commonness and everyday life. Meanwhile, the cucumber has outstanding taste and medicinal qualities.
Cucumber fruits contain useful minerals and vitamins, and also have antipyretic properties, can be used in the treatment of diseases of the kidneys and lungs. In addition, cucumbers are an integral and integral part of therapeutic diets for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and diabetes.
The advantages of such a familiar plant as a cucumber can be enumerated for a long time. Moreover, until now, the taste of the cucumber has not been practically affected. Although it is quite difficult to imagine a festive table in Russia, which would lack cucumbers in one form or another.
Climatic and natural features of the Krasnodar Territory
When describing the climatic and natural properties and characteristics of the Krasnodar Territory, it is necessary to note several points that directly affect the cultivation of cucumbers. It should be borne in mind that the Krasnodar Territory is a fairly large region, the conditions within which can also vary greatly. Further, the most characteristic and generalizing tendencies and properties will be considered.
High heat supply
As noted above, the Krasnodar Territory is one of the southernmost regions and, which quite logically follows from this, the warmest Russian regions. Cucumber is an extremely thermophilic plant, so this characteristic of the region is the best possible way to grow the plant.
Practice and many years of experience also show that the heat supply of the Krasnodar Territory, like the Kuban as a whole, is quite sufficient for the full ripening of cucumbers. In addition, the traditionally early onset of consistently high (+ 14-18 degrees) positive temperatures allows you to start planting cucumbers much earlier than in other regions. In the Kuban, sowing of cucumber with seeds in open ground often begins on May 5-10, that is, almost 20-30 days earlier than in central Russia. The fruiting period of cucumbers increases by about the same amount. Thus, cucumbers grow and bear fruit in the Krasnodar Territory for almost two months longer than in central Russia.
Insufficient moisture supply
In addition to heat, cucumber also has increased demands on the moisture content of the soil in which it grows. According to this indicator, the conditions of the Krasnodar Territory, however, as well as practically all other regions of Russia, cannot fully ensure the normal development of the plant.
Therefore, when growing cucumbers in the Krasnodar Territory, special attention should be paid to correct and regular watering of the plant. In addition, when growing cucumbers, it is necessary to apply various agrotechnical methods to reduce the relevance of insufficient moisture supply in the region.
One of these agricultural practices that improve the conditions for the growth and development of cucumbers is the use of mulching material. It allows you to achieve the following goals:
- protection of the soil from drying out and cracking in dry weather, and from siltation in rainy weather;
- preservation of moisture in the soil;
- stabilization of temperature in the soil;
- suppression of weed growth;
- counteracting soil erosion and leaching of nutrients.
As a mulching material, both polyethylene film and special non-woven material can be used.
Most of the other methods and techniques used for growing cucumbers in the Krasnodar Territory practically do not differ from those used everywhere in other regions of Russia. The main difference between the considered southern region is that due to the above-mentioned features of the climate and weather, the time of fruiting and, as a result, the yield in the Krasnodar Territory is much higher than in almost any other Russian region.
Popular varieties and hybrids for the Krasnodar Territory
There is a fairly large number of varieties of cucumbers that can be used outdoors and are zoned specifically for the Krasnodar Territory.
Hybrid Crane F1
A hybrid specially developed for open ground in the southern regions at an experimental station in the Crimea. Possesses excellent productivity, having almost 4-5 cucumbers at each node. The hybrid belongs to bee-pollinated and early maturing cucumbers. Cucumbers have a regular elliptical shape, rather large (length about 11-12 cm, weight - 90-110 g), large tuberous.
Gardeners who grow this hybrid especially note the high taste when consumed both fresh and canned, that is, it is universal. Cucumbers can be harvested until the first days of September, which indicates a long and long-term fruiting. When breeding, the breeders paid special attention to imparting disease resistance to the hybrid, which they quite succeeded: the hybrid is practically not susceptible to peronoscosis and has increased resistance to bacteriosis and powdery mildew, as well as medium resistance to downy mildew. No bitterness.
Hybrid Nightingale F1
The hybrid was also developed and zoned for the southern regions at the experimental station of the Crimea. Suitable for growing outdoors, but it is quite possible to use it in greenhouses or greenhouses. It belongs to the early maturing and bee-pollinated varieties of cucumbers. Begins to bear fruit in 45-50 days.
The hybrid has an elegant and attractive outwardly oval-cylindrical shape of the fruit, which at the same time has a bright green color. Ripe cucumbers are neat and relatively small in size - from 8 to 11 cm. They are long and weigh only 70-95 g. Large tubercles are strongly visible on the surface of the fruit. It is considered a versatile variety by connoisseurs, as it has excellent taste both fresh and salted and canned. Possesses high resistance to both types of powdery mildew, and also practically does not get sick with tobacco mosaic virus and angular spot. No bitterness.
Hybrid fontanelle F1
The hybrid, bred by the Pridnestrovian Research Institute of Agriculture, for growing in open ground and early - in spring film greenhouses. It belongs to the bee-pollinated and mid-season cucumber varieties. The hybrid has a stable yield, not setting records for this indicator, but even in unfavorable years in terms of climatic conditions, without dropping below its sufficiently high level. The first cucumbers ripen in 50 days. Cucumbers have a classic cylindrical shape and standard sizes: length 9-10 cm, weight 80-100 g.
Possesses high taste, but is most suitable for salting. It is able to resist anthracnose, olive spot and bacteriosis.
The variety was obtained and zoned for the southern regions of the Crimea at the experimental station located there. It was developed specifically for outdoor use. Refers to bee-pollinated and mid-season varieties of cucumbers. Possesses maximum resistance to downy mildew. Fruits in cucumbers 10 cm long. Their growth and ripening occurs very quickly, they rapidly acquire a barrel-shaped "pot-bellied" shape, which, however, does not in any way affect their excellent taste properties. It has a consistently high yield. It is a versatile variety, since cucumbers can be eaten both fresh and salted.
The variety was bred by breeders of the Crimean Experimental Station specifically for growing in the open field. The variety belongs to the early maturing and bee-pollinated varieties of cucumbers. Harvesting begins in 45-50 days. It has rather large (10-14 cm long) fruits with a very long (5-7 cm) peduncle. Just like the previous variety, it is practically not susceptible to downy mildew disease.
A variety of cucumbers for open ground. Refers to early maturing and bee-pollinated varieties of cucumbers. The plant is medium-sized, mainly of the female flowering type. Zelentsy have the shape of a slightly elongated oval, large tuberous and black spiky. Fruit weight - 60-70 g. The variety is versatile and suitable for canning, salting and fresh consumption. The obligatory daily collection of gherkins is recommended.
Hybrid Adam F1
A hybrid of German selection, according to the size of the fruit, referring to the gherkin. It differs in that the entire surface of the cucumber is speckled with small tubercles with thorns at the end. Their arrangement is so frequent and cramped that it seems that the fruit is fluffy. Cucumbers have a classic dark green color.
When washed during their processing, the thorns are destroyed. As a result, thin channels are formed through which the marinade immediately and evenly gets inside. This, firstly, improves the taste of the resulting product, and secondly, reduces the amount of condiments consumed. In addition, the hybrid tastes great when used fresh in salads.
Despite the fact that the selection of the hybrid did not take place in Russia, it was zoned to domestic conditions by local specialists.
The natural and climatic conditions of the Krasnodar Territory make the cultivation of cucumbers in the open field quite attractive and highly effective. With proper and competent management of it, the gardener can get an excellent harvest of his favorite, tasty and healthy vegetable.